Syllabus For The Subject Switch, Gear & Protection

SWITCH, GEAR & PROTECTION

1 Introduction

Need for protective systems

Nature and causes of faults

Types of faults

Effects of faults

Fault statistics

Evolution of protective relays

Zones of protection

Primary and back-up-protection

Essential qualities of protection

Performance of protective relays

Classification of protection system

Classification of protective schemes

Automatic reclosing

Current transformers for protection

Voltage transformers

Basic relay terminology

Exercise

 

2 Relay construction and operating principles

Introduction

Electromechanical relays

Static relays

Numerical relays

Comparison between electromechanical relays

And numerical relays

Exercises

 

3 Current and voltage transformers

Introduction

Current transformers

Voltage transformers

Summation transformer

Phase-sequence current-segregating network

Exercises

 

4 Fault analysis

Introduction

Per-unit system

One-line diagram

Impedance and reactance diagrams

Symmetrical fault analysis

Symmetrical components

Unsymmetrical fault analysis

Grounding earthling

Exercises

 

 

5 Over current protection

Introduction

Time-current characteristics

Current setting

Time setting

Over current protective schemes

Reverse power or directional relay

Protection of parallel feeders

Protection of ring mains

Earth fault and phase fault protection

Combined earth fault and phase fault

Protective scheme

Phase fault protective scheme

Directional earth fault relay

Static over current relays

Numerical over current relays 

Exercises

6 Distance protection

Introduction

Impedance relay

Reactance relay

MHO

Angle impedance relay

Input quantities for various types of

Distance relays

Sampling comparator

Effect of arc resistance on the performance of

Distance relays

Sampling comparator

Effect of arc resistance on the performance of distance relays

Reach of distance relays

Effect of power surges on the performance of distance relays

Effect of line length and source impedance on

Distance relays

Selection of distance relays

MHO relay with blinders

Quadrilateral relay

Elliptical relay

Restricted MHO relay

Restricted impedance relay

Restricted directional relay

Restricted reactance relay

Some other distance relay characteristics

Swiveling characteristics

Choice of characteristics for different zones of

Protection

Compensation for correct distance measurement

Reduction of measuring units

Switched schemes

Auto-reclosing

Appendix

Exercises

 

7 Pilot relaying schemes

Introduction

Wire pilot protection

Carrier current protection

Exercises

 

8 Differential protection

Introduction

Differential relays

Simple differential protection

Percentage or biased differential relay

Differential protection of 3-phase circuits

Balanced voltage differential

Protection

Exercises

 

 

9 Rotating machines protection

Introduction

Protection

Protection of generators

Exercises

 

 

10 Transformer and buzzone protection

Introduction

Transformer protection

Buszone protection

Frame leakage protection

Exercises

11 Numerical protections

Introduction

Numerical relay

Data acquisition system

Numerical relaying algorithms

Mann-Morrison technique

Differential equation technique

Discrete fourier transform technique

Walsh-hadamard transforms technique

Block pulse functions technique

Wavelet transforms technique

Block pulse functions technique

Wavelet transform technique

Removal of the dc offset

Numerical over current protection

Numerical distance protection

Numerical differential protection

Exercises

 

12 Microprocessor-based numerical protective relays

Introduction

IC elements and circuits for interfaces

A/D converter, analog multiplexer, S/H circuit

Over current relays

Impedance relay

Directional relay

Reactance relay

Generalized mathematical expression for

Distance relays

Measurement of R and X

Mho and offset Mho Relays

Quadrilateral relay

Generalized relay

Generalized interface for distance relays

Microprocessor implementation of digital distance

Relaying algorithms

Exercises

 

13 Artificial intelligence based numerical protection

Introduction    

Artificial neural network

Fuzzy logic

Application of ANN to over current protection

Application of ANN to transmission line

Protection

Neural network based directional relay

ANN modular approach for fault detection

Classification and location

Wavelet fuzzy combined approach for fault detection

Classification and location

Application of ANN to power transformer

Protection

Power transformer protection based on neural network and fuzzy logic

Network and fuzzy logic

Power transformer protection based upon combined

Wavelet transform and neural network

Application of ANN to generator protection

Exercises

 

14 circuits breakers

Introduction

Fault clearing time of a circuit breaker

Arc voltage

Arc interruption

Restriking voltage and recovery voltage

Resistance switching

Current chopping

Interruption of capacitive current

Classification of circuit breakers

Air-break circuits breakers

Oil circuit breakers

Air blast circuit breakers

SF6 circuit breakers

Vacuum circuit breakers

Operating mechanism

Testing of circuits breakers

Exercises

 

15 Fuses

Introduction

Definitions

Fuse characteristics

Types of fuses

Applications of HRC fuses

Selection of fuses

Discrimination

Exercises

 

16 protection against overvoltage’s

Causes of overvoltages

Lightning phenomena

Wave shape of voltage due to lightning overvoltages due to lighting

Klydonograph and magnetic link

Protection of transmission lines against direct

Lighting strokes

Protection of stations and sub-stations from

Direct strokes

Protection against travelling waves

Peterson coil

Insulation coordination

Basic impulse insulation level

Exercises

 

 

17 Modern trends in power system protection

Introduction

Gas insulated substation/switchgear

Frequency relays and load-shedding

Field programmable gate arrays based relays

Adaptive protection and control

Relay reliability advantages of fast fault clearing

Exercises      

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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