Syllabus For The Subject Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation

ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION

 

Contents

Foreword

Preface

Chapter-1 Measurements and instruments

Introduction

Terminology

Advantages of instrumentation systems

Block schematics of measuring systems

Other systems

Objectives of measurement

Comparison between analog and digital instruments

Factors for the selection of analog and digital equipments

Performance characteristics

Definitions

Significant figures

Dynamic characteristics

Types of errors

Gross errors

Systematic errors

Random errors

Statistical analysis

Probability of errors and Gaussian curve

Measurement standards

Suspension galvanometer

D’ Arsonval movement  

Taut-band suspension

Temperature compensation

Shunt resistor

Ayrton shunt

Direct current meters

D’ arsonval meter movement used in DC voltmeters

Ammeter loading effect

DC voltmeters

Multirange voltmeter

Ohmmeter

Series-type obmmeter

Shunt-type obmmeter

D’ arsonval meter movement used in obhmmeter

Multiple range obmmeters

Electrolyte capacitor leakage tests

For non-electrolyte capacitors

Multimeter

Alternating current-indicating instruments

Electrodynamometer

Rectifier-type instruments

Meter protection 

Extension of range

Frequency compensation

Electronic voltmeter

Electronic voltmeter

Average reading voltmeter

Peak reading voltmeter

Peak-to-peak detector

DC meter with amplifier

Chopper-stabilised amplifier

AC voltmeter using rectifiers

True RMS-responding voltmeter

Balanced bridge voltmeter

Advantages

Disadvantages

Transistor voltmeter

Electronic multimeter

Resistance ranges

AC current measurement

Differential voltmeter

Differential amplifier

Alternating current instruments

D’ arsonval meter movement for AC circuit

Modified circuit for AC measurements

D’arsonval meter movement circuit

Electrodynamometer movement

Transfer instruments

Iron vane-meter movement

Thermocouple meter

Constant voltage source

Constant current source

Volt box

Factors to be considered in the selection of an analog voltmeter

Digital voltmeters

General specifications

Ramp-type DVM

Typical case

Digit display

Pico ammeter

Applications

Low-current ammeter applications

Wafer-level photodiode testing

Monitoring and control of focused ion beam currents

High-resistance measurements

Summary

 

2 Waveform generators

Introduction

Considerations in choosing an oscillator or signal generator

Sine wave generator

Oscillator circuit

Attenuator

Frequency-synthesized signal generator

Sweep-frequency generator

Pulse and square wave generator

Function generator

Arbitrary waveform generator

Applications

Video signal generator

Summary

 

3 Signal analysers

Introduction

Wave analyser

AF wave analyser

High-frequency wave analyser

Frequency mixers

Harmonic distortion

Tunable selective circuit

Disadvantages

Heterodyne wave analyser

Fundamental suppression method of distortion measurement

Heterodyne wave analyser

Applications of wave analyser

Tuned circuit harmonic analyser

Heterodyne harmonic analyser or wavemeter

Fundamental suppression harmonic distortion analyser

Spectrum analyser

Characteristics of a spectrum analyser

Applications of a spectrum analyser

Basic spectrum analyser

Factors to be considered in a spectrum analyser

Low-frequency spectrum analyser

Applications

Power analyser

Communications signal analyser

Logic analysers

Network monitoring system

System architecture

Features

Applications

Capacitance-voltage analysers

Oscillators

Considerations in choosing an oscillator

Summary

 

4 Oscilloscopes

Introduction

Cathode ray oscilloscope

Block diagram of a CRO

Cathode ray tube

Graticules

Electrostatics deflection sensitivity

Design criteria

Different controls in a CRO

How to operate a CRO

Time base generators

Time base circuits

Triggered mode

Free-running mode

Synchronization of the sweep circuit

Types of CROS

Sections of CRTs

Deflection sensitivity equation

Neon time base circuit

Frequency of neon time base

Neon lamp

Free-running mode of CRO

Using CRO in triggered mode

Automode of sweep

Normal mode

Time base circuit for a general-purpose CRO

Synchronization issues

Line synchronization

Lissajous figures

Types of CRO probes

Direct probe

High-impedance probe

Detector probe

High-voltage probe

High-frequency CRO considerations

Delay lines in CROs

Lumped parameter delay line

Distributed parameter delay line

Applications of CRO

Summary

 

5 Special types of CROs

Special types of oscilloscopes

Dual beam CRO

Dual trace CRO

Sampling oscilloscope

Sampling oscilloscopes-vertical and time base

Sampling vertical

Sampling time base

Storage oscilloscopes

Mesh storage

Variable persistence

Phosphor storage

Phosphor characteristics

Persistence of phosphor materials

CRO subsystems

Digital storage CRO

CRO probes

Frequency/period-timer/counter circuit

Frequency measurement

Period measurement

Advantages

Errors in frequency /period measurements

Errors because of crystal stability

Universal counters

Extending the range of frequency counters

Glossary

The ABC’s of oscilloscopes

Summary

 

 

6 DC and AC bridges

Introduction

DC bridges

Wheatstone bridge

Operation

Measurement errors

Thevenin’s equivalent circuit

Kelvin Bridge

Kelvin double bridge

Applications

Strain gauge bridge circuit

Kelvin bridge

Kelvin double bridge

Applications

Strain gauge bridge circuit

AC bridges

General form of bridge circuit

Maxwell bridge

Phasor diagram for the Maxwell bridge

Hay bridge

Phasor diagram for Hay Bridge

Schering Bridge

Phasor diagram for the when bridge

Anderson Bridge

Resonance bridge

Similar Angle Bridge

Radio frequency bridge

Wagner’s ground connection

Twin-T null network

Bridged-T network

Dectectors for AC bridges

Phasor diagrams

Recorders

Introduction

Strip-chart recorders

Galvanometric recorders

Sensitivity

Transient response

Pen-driving mechanism

Other features

Servo recorders

Servo balancing potentiometric recorder

Characteristics of typical servo recorders

Oscillographic recorders

Magnetic type recorders

Direct AM recording

Frequency modulation recording

Recorders

X-Y recorders

Self-balancing potentiometers

Working of a servotype  motor

Chopper

Servotype X-Y recorders

Y-scale

Galvanometer oscillographs

Applications

Summary

 

 

7 Transducers

Introduction

Examples

Classification of transducers

Active and passive transducers

Factors that affect the performance of a transducer

Applications

Force and displacement transducers

Potentiometer

Potentiometer

Potentiometric transducers

Loading effect on a potentiometer

Resolution

Linear potentiometers

Non-linear potentiometers

Noise

Resistance strain gauges

Bonded-type strain gauges

Filament construction

Materials of the filament wire

Base carrier material

Strain gauge cements

Temperature effect on strain gauges

Measurement of strain

Strain gauge circuitry

The ballast circuit

The wheastone   bridges circuit

Circuit for calibration

Mounting of strain gauges

Commercial strain-measuring

 

8 Other types of transducers

Introduction

Resistance thermometers

Self heating

Advantages of wire resistance thermometers

Disadvantages

Semiconducting-resistance temperature transducers

Circuit employed

Advantages

Disadvantages

Hot wire anemometer

Constant current type

Measurement of direction of average flow

Other variable resistance transducers

Contact pressure transducer

Humidity measurement

Light

Variable inductance transducers

Linear variable differential transformer

Applications of LVDT

LVDT load cells

Synchros

Variable reluctance accelerometer

Microsyn

Temperature measurement

Electric methods

Electrical methods

Thermocouples

Thermocouple junction

Thermocouple insulation

Soldered ,drawn, or rolled sheatched thermocouple construction

Disposable-tip thermocouples

Homogeneity of thermocouple wires

Installation of thermocouples

Cold junction compensation

Resistance thermometry

Platinum resistance thermometers

Special resistance thermometer

Performance and testing procedure

Insulation resistance

Vibration resistance

Thermostors

Thermistor construction techniques

Thermistor performance characteristics

Applications of thermistor

Sensistors

Digital temperature-sensing system

Miscellaneous transducers

Flow measurements

Ultrasonic flow meters

Electromagnetic flow meter

Theory of head flow meters

Various tap connections

Advantages and limitations

Characteristics of head flow meters

Area flow meters

Rotameters 

Piston-type area meter

Laser Doppler anemometer

Positive displacement meters

Basic requirement meters

Nutating piston meters

Rotating meters

Oscillating piston meters

Magnetic flow meter

Flow meter requirements

Variable capacitance transducers

Practical capacitor pickups

Feedback-capacitor pickups

Carbon microphone

Circuitry for capacitance transducers

Frequency-modulating oscillator circuit

Circuits using DC excitation

AC bridges for amplitude modulation

Pulse width-modulating circuit

Piezoelectric transducer

Materials

Equivalent circuit

Piezoelectric coefficients

Modes of deformation

Multiple arrangements

Bimorphs

Bimorph twisters

General form of piezoelectric transducers

Available typical piezoelectric transducers

Shock accelerometer

Environmental effects

Magnetostrictive transducers

Magnetostrictive materials

Practical forms of transducers

Magnetostrictive torque transducers

Errors

Temperature

Variation of supply voltage

Eddy currents

Input impedance

Liquid-level measurement

Direct methods

Indirect liquid-level measurement

Capacitance-level gauge

Ultrasonic-level gauge

Measurement of humidity and moisture

Photoconductive cells

Photo pulse pickup

Digital encoders and encoder transducers

Shaft position encoders

Encoder transducers

Fibre optic displacement transducer

Absolute motion devices

Measurement of velocity

Translational velocity transducer moving coil pickup

DC tachometer generators for rotary velocity measurement

AC tachogenerator for rotary velocity measurement

Force measurements

Balance

Elastic force devices

Electromechanical methods

Measurement of pressure

Moderate pressure measurement

Manometers

Elastic transducers

High-pressure measurement

Low-pressure measurement

Thermal conductivity gauge or pirani gauge

Temperature measurements

Data acquisition systems

Summary

Appendix A

Index

       

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DMCA.com Protection Status