Syllabus For The Subject Multimedia Web

MULTIMEDIA WEB

CONTENTS

Preface

I Multimedia Authoring and Data Representations

1 Introduction to Mullimedia

1.1 What is Multimedia? 3

1.1.1 Components of Multimedia 3

1.1.2 Multimedia Research Topics and Projects 4

1.2 Multimedia and Hypermedia 5

1.2.1 History of Mu1timedia 5

1.2.2 Hypermedia and Multimedia 7

1.3 World Wide Web 8

1.3.1 History ofthe WWW 8

1.3.2 HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 9

1.3.3 HyperText Markup Language (HTML) 10

1.3.4 Extensible Markup Language (XML) 11

1.3.5 Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) 12

1.4 Overview of Mu1timedia Software Tools 14

1.4.1 Music Sequencing and Notation 14

1.4.2 Digital Audio 15

1.4.3 Graphics and Image Editing 15

1.404 Video Editing 15

104.5 Animation 16

1.4.6 Mu1timedia Authorjng 17

1.5 Further Exploration 17

1.6 Exercises 18

1.7 References 19

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2 l\Iultimedia Authoring and Tools 20

2.1 Multimedia Authoring 20

2.1.1 Multimedia Authoring Metaphors 21

2.1.2 Multimedia Production 23

2.1.3 Multimedia Presentation 25

2.1.4 Automatic Authoring 33

2.2 Some Useful Editing and Authoring Tools 37

2.2.1 Adobe Premiere 37

2.2.2 Macromedia Director 40

2.2.3 Macromedia Flash 46

2.2.4 Dreamweaver 51

2.3 VRML 51

2.3.1 Overview 51

2.3.2 Animation and Interactions 54

2.3.3 VR1vfL Specifics 54

2.4 Further Exploration 55

2.5 Exercises 56

2.6 References 59

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3 Graphics and hnage Data Representations

3.1 GraphicslImage Data Types 60

3.1.1 l·Bit Images 61

3.1.2 8-Bit Gray·Level Images 61

3.1.3 Image Data Types 64

3.1.4 24~Bit Color Images 64

3.1.5 8-Bit Color Images 65

3.1.6 Color Lookup Tables (LUTs) 67

3.2 Popular File Formats 71

3.2.1 GIF 71

3.2.2 JPEG 75

3.2.3 PNG 76

3.2.4 TIFF 77

3.2.5 EXIF 77

3.2.6 Graphics Animation Files 77

3.2.7 PS and PDF 78

3.2.8 Windows WMF 78

3.2.9 Windows BMF 78

3.2.10 Macintosh PAINT and PICT 78

3.2.11 X Windows PPM 79

3.3 Further Exploration 79

3.4 Exercises 79

3.5 References 81

4 Color in Image and Video

4. [ Color Science 82

4.1.1 Light and Spectra 82

4.1.2 Human Vision 84

4.1.3 Spectral Sensitivity of the Eye 84

4.1.4 Image Formation 85

4.1.5 Camera Systems 86

4.1.6 Gamma Correction 87

4.1.7 Color-Matching Functions 89

4.1.8 CIE Chromaticity Diagram 91

4.1.9 Color Monitor Specifications 94

4.1.10 Out-of-Gamut Colors 95

4.1.11 White-Point Correction 96

4.1.12 XYZ to RGB Transform 97

4.1.13 Transform with Gamma Correction 97

4.1.14 L*a*b* (CIELAB) Color Model 98

4.1.15 More Color-Coordinate Schemes 100

4.1.16 Munsell Color Naming System 100

4.2 Color'Models in Images 100

4.2.1 RGB Color Model for CRT Displays 100

4.2.2 Subtractive Color: CMY Color Model 101

4.2.3 Tr1!nsformation from RGB to CMY 101

4.2.4 Undercolor Removal: CMYK System 102

4.2.5 Printer Gamuts 102

4.3 Color Models in Video 104

4.3.1 Video Color Transforms 104

4.3.2 YUV Color Model 104

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4.3.3 YIQ Color Model 105

4.3.4 YCbCr Color Model 107

4.4 Further Exploration 107

4.5 Exercises 108

4.6 References III

5 Fundamental Concepts in Video

5.1 Types of Video Signals 112

5.1.1 Component Video 112

5.1.2 Composite Video 113

5.1.3 S-Video 113

5.2 Analog Video 113

5.2.1 NTSC Video 116

5.2.2 PAL Video 119

5.2.3 SECAM Video 119

5.3 Digital Video 119

5.3.1 Chroma Subsampllng 120

5.3.2 CCIR Standards for Digital Video 120

5.3.3 High Definition TV (HDTV) 122

5.4 Further Exploration 124

5.5 Exercises 124

5.6 References 125

6 Basics of Digital Audio

6.1 Digitization of Sound 126

6.1.1 What Is Sound? 126

6.1.2 Digitization 127

6.1.3 Nyquist Theorem 128

6.1.4 Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) 131

6.1.5 Signal-to-Quantization-Noise Ratio (SQNR) 131

6.1.6 Linear and Nonlinear Quantization 133

6.1.7 Audio Filtering 136

6.1.8 Audio Quality versus Data Rate 136

6.1.9 Synthetic Sounds 137

6.2 MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface 139

6.2.1 MIDI Overview 139

6.2.2 Hardware Aspects of MIDI 142

6.2.3 Structure of MIDI Messages 143

6.2.4 General MIDI 147

6.2.5 MIDI-to-WAV Conversion 147

6.3 Quantization and Transmission of Audio 147

6.3.1 Coding of Audio 147

6.3.2 Pulse Code Modulation 148

6.3.3 Differential Coding of Audio 150

6.3.4 Lossless Predictive Coding 151

6.3.5 DPCM 154

6.3.6 DM 157

6.3.7 ADPCM 158

6.4 Further Exploration 159

6.5 Exercises 160

6.6 References 163

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II lVlultimedia Data Compression

7 Lossless Compression Algorithms

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Basics of Infonnation Theory 168

7.3 Run-Length Coding 171

7.4 Variable-Length Coding (VLC) 171

7.4.1 Shannon-Fano Algorithm 171

7.4.2 Huffman Coding 173

7.4.3 Adaptive Huffman Coding 176

7.5 Dictionary-Based Coding 181

7.6 Arithmetic Coding 187

7.7 Lossless Image Compression 191

7.7.1 Differential Coding of Images 191

7.7.2 Lossless JPEG 193

7.8 Further Exploration 194

7.9 Exercises 195

7.10 References 197

8 Lossy Compression Algorithms

8.1 Introduction 199

8.2 Distortion Measures 199

8.3 The Rate-Distortion Theory 200

8.4 Quantization 200

8.4.1 Uniform Scalar Quantization 201

8.4.2 Nonunifonn Scalar Quantization 204

8.4.3 Vector Quantization* 206

8.5 Transform Coding 207

8.5.1 Discrete Cosine Transfonn (DCT) 207

8.5.2 Karhunen-Loeve Transform* 220

8.6 Wavelet-Based Coding 222

8.6.1 Introduction 222

8.6.2 Continuous Wavelet Transfonn* 227

8.6.3 Discrete Wavelet Transfonn* 230

8.7 Wavelet Packets 240

8.8 Embedded Zerotree of Wavelet Coefficients 241

8.8.1 The Zerotree Data Structure 242

8.8.2 Successive Approximation Quantization 244

8.8.3 EZW Example 244

8.9 Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) 247

8.10 Further Exploration 248

8.11 Exercises 249

8.12 References 252

9 Image Compl'ession Standards

9.1 The JPEG Standard 253

9.1.1 Main Steps in IPEG Image Compression 253

9.1.2 JPEG Modes 262

9.1.3 AGlance at the JPEG Bitstream 265

9.2 The JPEG2000 Standard 265

9.2.1 Main Steps of IPEG2000 Image Compression* 267

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9.2.2 Adapting EBCOT to JPEG2000 275

9.2.3 Region-of-Interest Coding 275

9.2.4 Comparison ofJPEG and JPEG2000 Performance 277

9.3 The JPEG-LS Standard 277

93.1 Prediction 280

9.3.2 Context Determination 281

9.3.3 Residual Coding 281

9.3.4 Near-Lossless Mode 281

9,4 Bilevel Image Compression Standards 282

9.4.1 The JBIG Standard 282

9.4.2 The JBIG2 Standard 282

9.5 Further Exploration 284

9.6 Exercises '285

9.7 References 287

10 Basic Video Compression Techniques

10.1 Introduction to Video Compression 288

10.2 Video Compression Based on Motion Compensation 288

10.3 Search for Motion Vectors 290

10.3.1 Sequential Search 290

10.3.2 2D Logarithmic Search 291

10.3.3 Hierarchical Search 293

10.4 H.261 295

10.4.1 Intra-Frame (I-Frame) Coding 297

10.4.2 Inter-Frame (P-Frame) Predictive Coding 297

10.4.3 Quantization in H.261 297

10.4.4 H.261 Encoder and Decoder 298

10.4.5 A Glance at the H.261 Video Bitstream Syntax 301

10.5 H.263 303

10.5.1 Motion Compensation in H.263 304

10.5.2 Optional H.263 Coding Modes 305

10.5.3 H.263+ and H.263++ 307

10.6 Further Exploration 308

10.7 Exercises 309

10.8 References 310

11 MPEG Video Coding I - MPEG-1 and 2

1L1 Overview 312

lL2 MPEG-1 312

11.2.1 Motion Compensation in MPEG-l 313

11.2.2 Other Major Differences from H.261 315

11.2.3 MPEG-l Video Bitstream 318

11.3 MPEG-2 319

11.3.1 Supporting Interlaced Video 320

11.3,2 MPEG-2 Scalabilities 323

11.3.3 Other Major Differences from MPEG-l 329

11.4 Further Exploration 330

11.5 Exercises 330

11.6 References 331

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12 MPEG Video Coding 11- MPEG-4, 7, and Beyond

12.1 Overview ofMPEG-4 332

12.2 Object-Based Visual Coding in MPEGA 335

12.2.1 VOP-Based Coding vs. Frame-Based Coding 335

12.2.2 Motion Compensation 337

12.2.3 Texture Coding 341

12.2.4 Shape Coding 343

12.2.5 Static Texture Coding 346

12.2.6 Sprite Coding 347

12.2.7 Global Motion Compensation 348

12.3 Synthetic Object Coding in MPEG-4 349

12.3.1 2D Mesh Object Coding 349

12.3.2 3D Model-based Coding 354

12.4 :tvlPEG-4 Object types, Profiles and Levels 356

12.5 MPEG-4 PartlOlH.264 357

12.5.1 Core Features 358

12.5.2 Baseline Profile Features 360

12.5.3 Main Profile Features 360

12.5.4 Extended Profile Features 361

12.6 MPEG-7 361

12.6.1 Descriptor CD) 363

12.6.2 Description Scheme CDS) 365

12.6.3 Description Definition Language CDDL) 368

12.7 MPEG-21 369

12.8 Further Exploration 370

12.9 Exercises 370

12.10 References 371

13 Basic Audio Compl'ession Techniques

13.1 ADPCM in Speech Coding 374

13.1.1 ADPCM 374

13.2 G.726 ADPCM 376

13.3 Vocoders 378

13.3.1 Phase Insensitivity 378

13.3.2 Channel Vocoder 378

13.3.3 Formant Vocoder 380

13.3.4 Linear Predictive Coding 380

13.3.5 CELl' 383

13.3.6 Hybrid Excitation Vocoders* 389

13.4 Further Exploration 392

13.5 Exercises 392

13.6 References 393

14 MPEG Audio Compl'ession

14.1 Psychoacoustics 395

14.1.1 Equal-Loudness Relations 396

14.1.2 Frequency Masking 398

14.1.3 Temporal Masking 403

14.2 MPEG Audio 405

14.2.1 MPEG Layers 405

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14.2.2 MPEG AudIo Strategy 406

14.2.3 MPEG Audio Compression Algorithm 407

14.2.4 MPEG·2 AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) 412

14.2.5 MPEGA Audio 4]4

14.3 Other Commercial Audio Codecs 415

14.4 The Future: MPEG-7 and MPEG-21 415

14.5 FurtherExploration 416

14.6 Exercises 416

14.7 References 417

III Multimedia Communication and Retrieval

15 Computer and Multimedia Networks

15.1 Basics of Computer and Multimedia Networks 421

15.1.1 OSI Network Layers 421

15.1.2 TCPIIP Protocols 422

15.2 Multiplexing Technologies 425

15.2.1 Basics of Multiplexing 425

]5.2.2 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) 427

15.2.3 Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) 428

15.2.4 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) 429

15.3 LAN and WAN 430

15.3.1 Local Area Networks (LANs) 431

15.3.2 Wide Area Networks (WANs) 434

15.3.3 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 435

15.3.4 Gigabit and lO-Gigabit Ethernets 438

15.4 Access Networks 439

15.5 Common Peripheral Interfaces 441

15.6 Further Exploration 441

15.7 Exercises 442

15.8 References 442

16 Multimedia Network Communications and Applications

16.1 Quality of Multimedia Data Transmission 443

16.1.1 Quality of Service (QoS) 443

16.1.2 QoS forIPProtocols 446

16.1.3 Prioritized Delivery 447

16.2 Multimedia over IP 447

]6.2.1 IF-Multicast 447

16.2.2 RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) 449

16.2.3 Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP) 451

16.2.4 Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) 451

16.2.5 Real·Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) 453

16.2.6 Internet Telephony 455

16.3 Multimedia over ATM Networks 459

16.3.1 Video Bitrates over ATM 459

16.3.2 ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) 460

16.3.3 1vIPEG-2 Convergence to ATM 461

16.3.4 Multicast over ATM 462

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16.4 Transport of MPEG-4 462

16.4.1 DMIF in MPEG-4 462

16.4.2 MPEG-4 over IP 463

16.5 Media~on-Demand (MOD) 464

16.5.1 Interactive TV (ITV) and Set-Top Box (STB) 464

16.5.2 Broadcast Schemes for Video-an-Demand 465

16.5.3 Buffer Management 472

16.6 Further Exploration 475

16.7 Exercises 476

16.8 References 477

17 Wil-eless NetwOl'ks

17.1 Wireless Networks 479

17.1.1 Analog Wireless Networks 480

17.1.2 Digital Wireless Networks 481

17.1.3 TDMA and GSM 481

17.1.4 Spread Spectrum and CDMA 483

17.1.5 Analysis ofCDMA 486

17.1.6 3G Digital \Vueless Networks 488

17.1.7 Wireless LAN (WLAN) 492

17.2 Radio Propagation Models 493

17.2.1 Multipath Fading 494

17.2.2 Path Loss 496

17.3 Multimedia over Wireless Networks 496

17.3.1 Synchronization Loss 497

17.3.2 Error Resilient Entropy Coding 499

17.3.3 Error Concealment 501

17.3.4 Forward Error Correction (FEe) 503

17.3.5 Trends in Wireless Interactive Multimedia 506

17.4 Further Exploration 508

17.5 Exercises 508

17.6 References 510

18 Content-Based Retdeval in Digital UbI'aries

18.1 How Should We Retrieve Images? 511

18.2 C-BIRD - A Case Study 513

18.2.1 C-BIRD Gill 514

18.2.2 Color Histogram 514

18.2.3 Color Density 516

18.2.4 Color Layout 516

18.2.5 Texture Layout 517

18.2.6 Search by Illumination Invariance 519

18.2.07 Search by Object Model 520

18.3 Synopsis of Current Image Search Systems 533

18.3.1 QBIC 535

18.3.2 UC Santa Barbara Search Engines 536

18.3.3 Berkeley Digital Library Project 536

18.3.4 Chabot 536

18.3.5 Blobworld 537

18.3.6 Columbia University Image Seekers 537

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18.3.7 Informedia 537

18.3.8 MetaSEEk 537

18.3.9 Photobook and FourEyes 538

18.3.10 MARS 538

18.3.11 Virage 538

18.3.12 Viper 538

18.3.13 Visual RetrievalWare 538

18.4 Relevance Feedback 539

18.4.1 MARS 539

18.4.2 iFind 541

18.5 Quantifying Results 541

18.6 Querying on Videos 542

18.7 Querying on Other Formats 544

18.8 Outlook for Content-Based Retrieval 544

18.9 Further Exploration 545

18.10 Exercises 546

18.11 References 547

Index 551

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