Syllabus For The Subject Principles of Food Technology

 

PRINCIPLS OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY

 

Contents

Acknowledgements

Glossary

List of symbols

List of acronyms

Introduction

The food industry today

About this book

Note on the second edition

 

PART I BASIC PRINCIPLES

1

Properties of foods and processing theory

1

Density and specific

gravity

Viscosity

Surface activity

Rheology and texture

Material transfer

Fluid flow

Fluid flow through fluidised beds

Heat transfer

Energy balances

Mechanisms of heat transfer

Sources of heat and methods of application to foods

Energy conservation

Effect of heat on micro-organisms

Effect of heat on nutritional and sensory characteristics

Water activity

Effect of a on foods

Effects of processing on sensory characteristics of foods

Texture

Taste, flavour and aroma

Colour

Effects of processing on nutritional properties

Food safety, good manufacturing practice and quality assurance

HACCP

Hurdle technology

Acknowledgements

.

References

.

 

2  .Process control

Automatic control

Sensors

Controllers

Computer-based systems

Programmable logic controllers (PLCs)

.

Types of control systems

Software developments

Neural networks

Acknowledgements

References

PART II

AMBIENT-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING

3.  Raw material preparation

Cleaning

Wet cleaning

.

Dry cleaning

Removing contaminants and foreign bodies

Sorting

Shape and size sorting

Colour sorting

Weight sorting

Grading

Peeling

Flash steam peeling

Knife peeling

Abrasion peeling

Caustic peeling

Flame peeling

 

Acknowledgements

References

4. Size reduction

Size reduction of solid foods

Theory

Equipment

Effect on foods

Size reduction in liquid foods (emulsification and homogenisation)

Theory

Equipment

Effect on foods

Acknowledgements

References

 

5 .Mixing and forming

Mixing

Theory of solids mixing

Theory of liquids mixing

Equipment

Effect on foods

Forming

Bread moulders

Pie and biscuit formers

Confectionery moulders

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

6 .Separation and concentration of food components

 

Centrifugation

Theory

Equipment

Filtration

Theory

 

Equipment

Expression

Theory

Equipment

Extraction using solvents

Theory

Equipment

Membrane concentration (hyperfiltration and ultrafiltration)

Theory

.

Equipment

Effect on foods

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

7. Fermentation and enzyme technology

Fermentation

Theory

Types of food fermentations

Equipment

Effect on foods

Enzyme technology

Enzyme production from micro-organisms

Application of enzymes in food processing

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

8. Irradiation

Theory

Equipment

Measurement of radiation dose

Dose distribution

Effect on micro-organisms

Applications

Sterilisation (or ‘radappertisation’)

Reduction of pathogens (or ‘radicidation’)

Prolonging shelf life (or ‘radurisation)

Control of ripening

Disinfestation

Inhibition of sprouting

Effect on foods

Induced radioactivity

Radiolytic products

Nutritional and sensory value

Effect on packaging

Detection of irradiated foods

Physical methods

Chemical methods

Biological methods

Acknowledgement

References

 

 

 

9.   Processing using electric fields, high hydrostatic pressure, light or

Ultrasound

 

 

 Pulsed electric field processing

Theory

Equipment

High pressure processing

Theory

Processing and equipment

Effect on micro-organisms, enzymes and food components

Processing using pulsed light

Theory

Equipment and operation

Effect on micro-organisms and foods

Processing using ultrasound

Theory

Application to processing

Other methods

References

 

PART III

PROCESSING BY APPLICATION OF HEAT

A.      Heat processing using steam or water

10. Blanching

Theory

Equipment

Steam blanchers

Hot-water blanchers

Effect on foods

Nutrients

Colour and flavor

Texture

Acknowledgement

References

 

 

11. Pasteurisation

Theory

Equipment

Pasteurisation of packaged foods

Pasteurisation of unpackaged liquids

Effect on foods

Colour, flavour and aroma

Vitamin loss

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

12.. Heat sterilization

In-container sterilisation

 

Theory

Retorting (heat processing)

Equipment

Ultra high-temperature (UHT)/aseptic processes

Theory

 

Processing

Equipment

 

Effect on foods

Colour

Flavour and aroma

Texture or viscosity

Nutritive value

Acknowledgements

References

 

13. Evaporation and distillation

 

Evaporation

Theory

Equipment

Effect on foods

Distillation

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

14. Extrusion

Theory

Rheological properties of the food

Operating characteristics

Equipment

Single-screw extruders

Twin-screw extruders

Ancillary equipment

Applications

Cold extrusion

Extrusion cooking

Effect on foods

Sensory characteristics

Nutritional value

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

B. Heat processing using hot air

15. Dehydration

Theory

Drying using heated air

Drying using heated surfaces

Equipment

Hot-air driers

Heated-surface (or contact) driers

Effect on foods

Texture

Flavour and aroma

Colour

Nutritional value

Rehydration

Acknowledgements

 

References

 

16. Baking and roasting

Theory

Equipment

Direct heating ovens

Indirect heating ovens

Batch ovens

Continuous and semi-continuous ovens

Effect on foods

Texture

Flavour, aroma and colour

Nutritional value

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

C Heat processing using hot oils

17Frying

                    Theory

Shallow (or contact) frying

Deep-fat frying

Equipment

Effect on foods

Effect of heat on oil

Effect of heat on fried foods

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

D. Heat processing by direct and radiated energy

18. Dielectric, ohmic and infrared heating

Dielectric heating

Theory

Equipment

Applications

Effect on foods

Ohmic heating

Theory

Equipment and applications

Infrared heating

Theory

Equipment

Effect on foods

Acknowledgements

References

 

PART IV .PROCESSING BY THE REMOVAL OF HEAT

 

 

19. Chilling

Theory

Fresh foods

Processed foods

Cook

chill systems

 

Equipment

Mechanical refrigerators

Cryogenic chilling

Chill storage

Control of storage conditions

Effect on foods

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

20. Controlled- or modified-atmosphere storage and packaging

 

Modified- and controlled-atmosphere storage (MAS and CAS)

Modified-atmosphere packaging

MAP for fresh foods

MAP for processed foods

 

Packaging materials for MAP

Active packaging systems

Acknowledgement

References

 

 

21 Freezing

Theory

Ice crystal formation

Solute concentration

Volume changes

Calculation of freezing time

Equipment

Cooled-air freezers

Cooled-liquid freezers

ooled-surface freezers

Cryogenic freezers

Changes in foods

Effect of freezing

Effects of frozen storage

Thawing

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

22. Freeze drying and freeze concentration

Freeze drying (lyophilisation)

Theory

Equipment

Effect on foods

Freeze concentration

Theory

Equipment

 

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

 

PART V. POST-PROCESSING OPERATIONS

23. Coating or enrobing

 

Coating materials

Batters, powders and breadcrumbs

Chocolate and compound coatings

Enrobers

Dusting or breading

Pan coating

Hard coatings

Soft coatings

Chocolate coating

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

24. Packaging

Theory

Light

Heat

Moisture and gases

Micro-organisms, insects, animals and soils

Mechanical strength

Types of packaging materials

 

Textiles and wood

Metal

Glass

Flexible films

Rigid and semi-rigid plastic containers

Paper and board

Combined packaging systems

Active packaging technologies

Printing

Bar codes and other markings

Interactions between packaging and foods

Environmental considerations

Packaging costs

Manufacture of packaging materials

Distribution of packaging materials and ingredients for food

production

Distribution to retailers and consumers

Consumer recycling

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

25. Filling and sealing of containers

Rigid and semi-rigid containers

Filling

Sealing

Flexible containers

Types of sealer

Form

fill

seal (FFS) equipment

Form

Fill seal (FFS) equipment

Tamper-evident packaging

Labelling

Checkweighing

Metal detection

Acknowledgements

References

 

 

26. Materials handling, storage and distribution

 

Materials handling

Handling equipment for raw materials and ingredients

Handling equipment for processing

Waste management and disposal

Storage

Distribution

Acknowledgements

References

Appendices

 

A Vitamins in foods

B  Nutritional and functional roles of minerals in foods

 

C  EEC permitted food additives

D Units and dimensions

 

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