Syllabus For The Subject Dairy Technology

DAIRY TECHNOLOGY

Contents

Part I

Milk

Chapter 1

Milk: Main Characteristics

1.1 Composition and Structure

1.1.1 Principal Components

1.1.2 Structural Elements

1.2 Milk Formation

1.3 Some Properties of Milk

1.4 Variability

1.5 Changes

Suggested Literature

Chapter 2

Milk Components

2.1Lactose

2.1.1 Chemical Properties

2.1.2 Nutritional Aspects

2.1.3 Physicochemical Aspects

2.2 Salts

2.2.1 Composition and Distribution among the Phases

2.2.2 Properties of the Salt Solution

2.2.3 Colloidal Calcium Phosphate

2.2.4 Nutritional Aspects

2.2.5 Changes in Salts

2.3Lipids

2.3.1 Constituent Fatty Acids

2.3.2 Lipid Classes

2.3.3 Nutritional Aspects

2.3.4 Autoxidation

2.3.5 Triglyceride Crystallization

2.4 Proteins

2.4.1 Chemistry of Proteins

2.4.2 Survey of Milk Proteins

2.4.3 Serum Proteins

2.4.4 Casein

2.4.5 Nutritional Aspects

2.5 Enzymes

2.5.1 Enzyme Activity

2.5.2 Some Milk Enzymes

2.5.3 Inactivation


2.6 Other Components

2.6.1 Natural Components

2.6.2 Contaminants

2.6.3 Radionuclides

2.7 Variability

2.7.1 Sources of Variability

2.7.2 Nature of the Variation

2.7.3 Some Important Variables

Suggested Literature

Chapter 3

Colloidal Particles of Milk

3.1 Basic Aspects

3.1.1 Surface Phenomena

3.1.2 Colloidal Interactions

3.1.3 Aggregation

3.1.4 Size Distributions

3.2 Fat Globules

3.2.1 Properties

3.2.2 Emulsion Stability

3.2.3 Interactions with Air Bubbles

3.2.4 Creaming

3.2.5 Lipolysis

3.3 Casein Micelles

3.3.1 Description

3.3.2 Changes

3.3.3 Colloidal Stability

3.3.4 Gel Formation and Properties

Suggested

Chapter 4

Milk Properties

4.1 Solution Properties

4.2 Acidity

4.3 Redox Potential

4.4 Flavor

4.5 Density

4.6 Optical Properties

4.7 Viscosity

4.7.1 Some Fluid Rheology

4.7.2 Liquid Milk Products

Suggested Literature


 

Chapter 5

Microbiology of Milk

5.1 General Aspects

5.1.1 Microorganisms

5.1.2 Bacteria

5.1.3 Yeasts and Molds

5.1.4 Enumeration of Microorganisms

5.1.5 Growth

5.1.6 Milk as a Substrate for Microorganisms

5.2 Undesirable Microorganisms

5.2.1 Pathogenic Microorganisms

5.2.2 Spoilage Microorganisms

5.3 Sources of Contamination

5.3.1 Microbial Ecology

5.3.2 Microorganisms Present in the Udder

5.3.3 Contamination during and after Milking

5.4 Hygienic Measures

5.4.1 Protection of the Consumer against Pathogenic Microorganisms

5.4.2 Measures against Spoilage Organisms

Suggested Literature

 

Part II

Processes

Chapter 6

General Aspects of Processing

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Preservation Methods

6.3 Quality Assurance

6.3.1 Concepts

6.3.2 Hazard Analysis/Critical Control Points (HACCP)

6.3.3 Quality Assurance of Raw Milk

6.4Milk Storage and Transport

6.4.1 Milk Collection and Reception

6.4.2 Milk Storage

6.4.3 Transport of Milk in the Dairy

6.5 Standardizing

Suggested Literature

Chapter 7

Heat Treatment

7.1 Objectives

7.2 Changes Caused by Heating

7.2.1 Overview of Changes

7.2.2 Reactions of Proteins

7.2.3 Reactions of Lactose

7.2.4 Heat Coagulation

7.3 Heating Intensity

7.3.1 Processes of Different Intensity

7.3.2 Kinetic Aspects

7.3.3 Inactivation of Enzymes

7.3.4 Thermobacteriology

7.4 Methods of Heating

7.4.1 Considerations

7.4.2 Equipment

7.4.3 Heat Regeneration

7.4.4 Control

Suggested Literature

Chapter 8

Centrifugation

8.1 Cream Separation

8.2 Removal of Particles

Suggested Literature

Chapter 9

Homogenization

9.1 Objectives

9.2 Operation of the Homogenizer

9.3 Effects of Turbulence

9.4 Factors Affecting Fat Globule Size

9.5 Surface Layers

9.6 Colloidal Stability

9.7 Homogenization Clusters

9.8 Creaming

9.9 Other Effects of Homogenization

9.10 Other Ways of Working

Suggested Literature

Chapter 10

Concentration Processes

10.1 General Aspects

10.1.1 Concentration of Solutes

10.1.2 Water Activity

10.1.3 Changes Caused by Concentrating

10.1.4 The Glassy State

10.1.5 Reaction Rates

10.2 Evaporating

10.3 Drying: General Aspects

10.3.1 Objectives

10.3.2 Drying Methods

10.4 Spray Drying

10.4.1 Drier Configuration

10.4.2 Atomization

10.4.3 Change of State of the Drying Air

10.4.4 Changes of State of the Drying Droplets

10.4.5 Two-Stage Drying

Suggested Literature

Chapter 11

Cooling and Freezing

11.1 Cooling

11.2 Freezing

Suggested Literature

Chapter 12

Membrane Processes

12.1 General Aspects

12.1.1 Types of Processes

12.1.2 Efficiency

12.1.3 Technical Operation

12.2 Ultrafiltration

12.2.1 Composition of the Retentate

12.2.2 Permeate Flux

12.3 Reverse Osmosis

12.4 Desalting

Suggested Literature

Chapter 13

Lactic Fermentations

13.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria

13.1.1 Taxonomy

13.1.2 Metabolism

13.1.3 Genetics

13.1.4 Bacteriocins

13.2 Acid Production

13.3 Bacteriophages

13.3.1 Phage Composition and Structure

13.3.2 Phage Multiplication

13.3.3 Phage Resistance Mechanisms

13.3.4 Inactivation

13.4 Ecological Aspects

13.5 Starters

13.5.1 Composition

13.5.2 Properties

13.5.3 Shifts in Flora

13.5.4 Traditional Starter Manufacture

13.5.5 Modern Starter Manufacture

Suggested Literature

Chapter 14 Fouling and Sanitizing

14.1 Deposit Formation

14.2 Cleaning

14.3 Disinfection

Suggested Literature

Chapter 15 Packaging

15.1 Distribution Systems

15.2 Packaging Materials

15.3 Filling Operation

Suggested Literature

Part III

Products

Chapter 16 Milk for Liquid Consumption

16.1 Pasteurized Milk

16.1.1 Manufacture

16.1.2 Shelf Life

16.1.3 Extended-Shelf-Life Milk

16.2 Sterilized Milk

16.2.1 Description

16.2.2 Methods of Manufacture

16.2.3 Shelf Life

16.3 Reconstituted Milks

16.4 Flavor

16.5 Nutritive Value

16.5.1 Modification of Composition

16.5.2 Loss of Nutrients

16.6 Infant Formulas

16.6.1 Human Milk

16.6.2 Formula Composition and Manufacture

Suggested Literature

Chapter 17 Cream Products

17.1 Sterilized Cream

17.1.1 Manufacture

17.1.2 Heat Stability

17.1.3 Stability in Coffee

17.1.4 Clustering

17.2 Whipping Cream

17.2.1 Desirable Properties

17.2.2 Manufacture

17.2.3 The Whipping Process

17.3 Ice Cream

17.3.1 Manufacture

17.3.2 Physical Structure: Formation and Stability

17.3.3 Role of the Various Components

Suggested Literature

Chapter 18 Butter

18.1 Description

18.2 Manufacture

18.2.1 Processing Scheme

18.2.2 The Churning Process

18.2.3 Working

18.3 Properties

18.3.1 Microstructure

18.3.2 Consistency

18.3.3 Cold Storage Defects

18.4 Cultured Butter from Sweet Cream

18.5 High-Fat Products

18.5.1 Anhydrous Milk Fat

18.5.2 Modification of Milk Fat

18.5.3 Recombined Butter

18.5.4 Low-Fat Butter Products

Suggested Literature

Chapter 19 Concentrated Milks

19.1 Evaporated Milk

19.1.1 Manufacture

19.1.2 Product Properties

19.1.3 Heat Stability

19.1.4 Creaming

19.1.5 Age Thickening and Gelation

19.2 Sweetened Condensed Milk

19.2.1 Manufacture

19.2.2 Keeping Quality

Suggested Literature

Chapter 20 Milk Powder

20.1 Objectives

20.2 Manufacture

20.3 Hygienic Aspects

20.3.1 Bacteria in the Original Milk

20.3.2 Growth during Manufacture

20.3.3 Incidental Contamination

20.3.4 Sampling and Checking

20.4 Powder Characteristics

20.4.1 The Particle

20.4.2 Extractable Fat

20.4.3 Free-Flowingness

20.4.4 Specific Volume

20.4.5 Dissolution

20.4.6 WPN Index

20.4.7 Flavor

20.4.8 Conclusions

20.5 Deterioration

20.6 Other Types of Milk Powder

Suggested Literature

Chapter 21 Protein Preparations

21.1 Manufacture

21.1.1 Casein

21.1.2 Whey Protein

21.1.3 Other Products

21.2 Functional Properties

21.2.1 Solution Properties

21.2.2 Gels

21.2.3 Emulsions

21.2.4 Foams

Suggested Literature

Chapter 22 Fermented Milks

22.1 General Aspects

22.2 Types of Fermented Milks

22.2.1 Mesophilic Fermentation

22.2.2 Thermophilic Fermentation

22.2.3 Yeast–Lactic Fermentation

22.2.4 Molds in Lactic Fermentation

22.3 Cultured Buttermilk

22.4 Yogurt

22.4.1 The Yogurt Bacteria

22.4.2 Manufacture

22.4.3 Physical Properties

22.4.4 Flavor Defects and Shelf Life

22.5 Nutritional Aspects

22.5.1 Composition

22.5.2 Nutritional Value

22.5.3 Probiotics

22.5.4 Prebiotics

Suggested Literature

Part IV

Cheese

Chapter 23 Principles of Cheese Making

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Essential Process Steps

23.3 Changes Occurring

Suggested Literature

Chapter 24 Cheese Manufacture

24.1 Milk Properties and Pretreatment

24.1.1 The Raw Milk

24.1.2 Milk Treatment

24.2 Starters

24.3 Enzyme-Induced Clotting

24.3.1 Enzymes Used

24.3.2 The Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction

24.3.3 Aggregation

24.3.4 Gel Formation

24.3.5 The Renneting Time

24.3.6 Clotting of Heat-Treated Milk

24.4 Curd Making

24.4.1 Clotting

24.4.2 Accumulation of Various Components

24.4.3 Concentrating before Clotting

24.4.4 Syneresis

24.4.5 Acid Production and Washing

24.4.6 Separation of Curd and Whey

24.5 Shaping and Pressing

24.6 Salting

24.6.1 Mass Transport during Salting

24.6.2 Important Variables

24.6.3 Distribution of Salt and Water after Salting

24.7 Curing, Storage, and Handling

24.7.1 Temperature

24.7.2 Air Conditions

24.7.3 Rind Treatment

24.7.4 Packaging

24.8 Cheese Composition and Yield

24.8.1 Variables Involved

24.8.2 Yield

24.8.3 Standardizing the Milk

Suggested Literature

Chapter 25 Cheese Ripening and Properties

25.1 Lactic Fermentation

25.2 Enzyme Sources

25.3 Proteolysis

25.3.1 Methods of Characterization

25.3.2 Milk Proteinases

25.3.3 Clotting Enzymes

25.3.4 Enzymes of Lactic Acid Bacteria

25.3.5 Enzymes of Nonstarter Organisms

25.3.6 Interaction between Enzyme Systems

25.3.7 Ultrafiltration of Cheese Milk

25.4 Lipolysis

25.5 Development of Flavor

25.5.1 Description

25.5.2 Formation of Flavor Compounds

25.6 Development of Texture

25.6.1 Structure

25.6.2 Consistency

25.7 Accelerated Ripening

25.8 Nutritive Value and Safety

Suggested Literature

Chapter 26 Microbial Defects

26.1 Coliform Bacteria

26.2 Butyric Acid Bacteria

26.3 Lactobacilli

26.4 Heat-Resistant Streptococci

26.5 Propionic Acid Bacteria

26.6 Organisms on the Rind

26.7 Other Aspects

Suggested Literature

Chapter 27 Cheese Varieties

27.1 Overview

27.1.1 Variations in Manufacture

27.1.2 Types of Cheese

27.2 Fresh Cheese

27.2.1 Quarg

27.2.2 Cottage Cheese

27.3 Gouda-Type Cheeses

27.3.1 Manufacture

27.3.2 Properties and Defects

27.4 Cheddar-Type Cheeses

27.4.1 Manufacture

27.4.2 Properties

27.5 Swiss and Pasta-Filata Types

27.5.1 Emmentaler

27.5.2 Mozzarella

27.6 Cheeses with a Specific Flora

27.6.1 Soft Cheese with Surface Flora

27.6.2 Blue-Veined Cheese

27.7 Processed Cheese

Suggested Literature

Part V

Appendix

Appendix A.1 Often-Used Symbols

A.2 Abbreviations

A.3 Conversion Factors

A.4 Physical Properties of Milk Fat

A.5 Amino Acid Composition of Milk Proteins

A.6 Amino Acid Sequences of Caseins

A.7 Some Properties of Lactose

A.8 Trace Elements in Cows’ Milk

A.9 Physical Properties of Milk and Milk Products

A.10 Mass Density and Viscosity of Some Milk

Fractions

A.11 Heat Transfer

A.12 Data on Some Cheese Varieties

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