Syllabus For The Subject Cost Management & Accounting

Cost Management: Accounting and Control

Contents

Part 1 Foundation to cost management 3

            A systems framework 3

                        Accounting information system 4

            Factors affecting cost management 6

                        Global competition 7

                        Growth of the service industry 7

                        Advances in information technology 7

                        Advances in the manufacturing environment 8

                        Customer orientation 9

                        New product development 9

                        Total as a competitive element 10

                        Efficiency 10

            The role of the management accountant 10

                        Planning 10

                        Controlling 11

                        Continuous improvement 11

                        Decision making 11

            Accountant and ethical conduct 12

                        Benefit of ethical behavior 12

Standards of ethical conduct for management accounting 12

            Certification 14

                        Certificate in management accounting 14

                        Certificate in public accountant 14

                        Certificate in internet auditing 14

           

Chapter 2 Basic cost management concepts 23

                        Cost assignment: direct tracing, driver tracing and allocation 23

                                    Cost objects 24

                                    Accuracy of assignments 24

                        Product costs 26

                                    Product cost definitions 27

                                    Product costs and external financial reporting 27

                        External financial statement 30

                                    Income statement: manufacturing firm 30

                                    Income statement: service organization 32

                        Functional- based and activity-based cost management system 33

Functional-based cost management systems: A brief overview 33

Activity-based cost management system: a brief overview 34

Choice of a cost management system 36

           

Chapter 3 Cost behavior 50

                        Basics of cost behavior 51

                                    Fixed costs 51

                                    Variable costs 52

                                    Mixed costs 53

                                    Time horizon 54

                        Resources, activities, and cost behavior 55

                                    Flexible resources 55

                                    Committed resources 55

                                    Step-cost behavior 56

                        Methods for separating mixed costs into fixed and variable components 58

                                    The-high-low method 59

                                    Scatter plot method 60

                                    The method of least squares 61

                                    Using regression programs 63

                        Reliability of cost formulas 64

                                    Hypothesis testing of parameters 65

                                    Goodness of fit measures 65

                                    Confidence intervals 65

                        Multiple regression 66

                        The learning curve and nonlinear cost behavior 69

                                    Cumulative average-time learning curve 69

                        Managerial judgment 71 

Chapter 4 Activity-based costing 85

                        Functional-based product costing 86

                                    Overhead application: plant wide rate 87

                                    Disposition of overheard variances 88

                                    Overhead application: departments rates 89

                        Limitation of plant wide and department rates 90

                                    Non- unit-related overhead cost 90

                                    Product diversity 91

                                    An example illustrating the failure of unit-based overhead rates 91

                                    ABC users 96

                        Activity-based costing system 96

                                    Activity identification, definition, and classification 97

                                    Assigning costs of overhead resources to activities 99

                                    Assigning secondary activity costs to primary activities 101

                                    Cost objects rates and product costing 102

                                    Activity rates and product costing 103

                        Reducing the size and complexity of an ABC system 103

                                    Approximately relevant ABC system 104

                                    Time-drive ABC system 106

Chapter 5 Product and service costing: job-order system 130

                        Characteristics of the production process 130

                                    Manufacturing firms versus service firms 131

                                    Unique versus standardized production and services 131

                        Setting up the cost account system 132

                                    Cost accumulation 132

                                    Cost measurement 133

                                    Cost assignment 134

                                    Choosing the activity level 136

                        The job-order costing system: general description 137

                                    Overview of the job-order costing system 137

                                    Job time tickers 139

                                    Overhead application 140

                                    Unit cost calculation 140

                        Job-order costing: specific cost flow description 141

                                    Accounting for direct labor cost 141

                                    Accounting for overhead 143

                                    Accounting for finished goods inventory 144

                                    Accounting for cost of goods sold 146

                        Single versus multiple overhead rates 148

                        Appendix: accounting for spoilage in a traditional job-order system 150

Chapter 6 Product and service costing: a process system approach 167

                        Process-costing system: basic operational and cost concepts 167

                                    Cost flows 168

                                    The production report unit costs 170

                                    Unit costs 170

                        Process costing with no beginning or ending work-in-process inventories 173

                                    Equivalent units as unit as output measures 173

                                    Cost of production report illustrated 174

                                    Nonuniform application of productive inputs 174

                                    Beginning work-in-process inventories 176

                        FIFO costing method 176

                                    Step 1: physical flow analysis 177

                                    Step 2: calculation of equivalent units 178

                                    Step 3: computation of unit cost 178

                                    Step 4: valuation of inventories 178

                                    Step 5: cost reconciliation 179

                        Weighted average costing method 180

                                    Step 1: physical flow analysis 181

                                    Step 2: calculation of unit cost 181

                                    Step 3: computation of unit cost 182

                                    Step 4: valuation of inventories 182

                                    Step 5: cost reconciliation 182

                                    Production report 183

                                    FIFO compared with weighted average 184

                        Treatment of transferred-in goods 184

                                    Step 1: Physical flow analysis 185

                                    Step 2: Computation of unit costs 186

                                    Step 3: Computation of unit costs 186

                                    Step 4: Valuation of inventories 186

                        Operation costing 187

                                    Basic of operation costing 188

                                    Operation costing example 189

                        Appendix: soiled unites 191

 

Chapter 7 Allocating costs of support departments and joint products 209

                        An overview of cost allocation 209

                        Types of departments 210

            Allocating one department`s costs to another department 213

                        A single charging rate 213

                        Dual charging rates 214

                        Budgeted versus actual usage 216

                        Fixed versus variable bases: A note of caution 218

            Choosing a support department cost allocation method 219

                        Direct method of allocation 219

                        Sequential method of allocation 220

                        Reciprocal method of allocation 223

                        Comparison of the three method 225

            Departmental overhead rates and product costing 225

            Accounting for joint production processes costing 226

                        Cost separability and the need for allocation 227

                        Distinction and similarity between joint production and by products 227]

                        Accounting for joint production costs 228

                        Allocation based on relative market value 230

Chapter 8 Budgeting for planning and control 249

                        The role of budgeting in planning and control 250

Types of budgets 250    

Gathering information for budgeting 252

                        Preparing the operating budget 253

                                    Sale budget 254

                                    Production budget 255

                                    Direct materials purchases budget 255

                                    Direct labor budget 256

                        Process value analysis 431

                                    Driver analysis: defining root cause 431

                                    Activity analysis: identifying and assessing value content 431

                                    Assessing activity performance 434

                        Financial measures of activity efficiency 434

                                    Reporting value- added and non-value-added costs 434

                                    Trend reporting of non-value-added costs 436

                                    The role of kaizen standards 437

                                    Benchmarking 438

                                    Activity flexible budgeting 439

                                    Activity capacity management 441

                        Implementing activity-based management 442

                                    The ABM implementations model 442

                                    Why ABM implementation sometimes fail 444

                        Financial-based versus activity-based responsibility accounting 444

                                    Assigning responsibility 445

                                    Establishing performance measures 446

                                    Evaluating performance 447
                                    Assigning rewards 447

Chapter 13 The balanced scorecard: strategic-based control 467

                        Activity-based versus strategic-based responsibility accounting 468

                                    Assigning responsibility 467

                                    Establishing performance measures 469

                                    Performance measurement and evaluation 470

                                    Assigning rewards 471

                        Basic concepts of the balanced scorecard 471

                                    Strategy translation 472

                                    Financial perspective, objectives, and measures 472

                                    Customer perspective, and measures 474

                                    Process perspective, objectives, and measures 475

                                    Learning and growth perspective, objectives, and measures 478

                        Linking measures to strategy 480

                                    The concept of a testable strategy 480

                                    Strategic feedback 481

                        Strategic alignment 482

                                    Communication the strategy 482

                                    Targets and incentives 482

                                    Resource allocation 484

Chapter 14 Quality and environment cost management 497

                                    Costs of quality 498

                                    Defining quality costs 498

                                    Quality cost measurement 500

                                    Reporting quality costs 500

                                    The role of activity-based cost management 501

                        Quality cost information and decision making 502

                                    Decision-making contexts 502

                                    Certifying quality through ISO 9000 505

                        Controlling quality costs 505

                                    Choosing the quality standard 507

                                    Types of quality performance report 507                                 

Defining, measuring, and controlling environment costs 511

                                    Environmental costs defined 512

                                    Environmental cost report 512

                                    Environmental cost reduction 513

                                    An environmental financial report 514

Chapter 15 Productivity measurement and control 533

                                    Production efficiency 534

                                    Partial productive measurement 534

                        Partial productivity measurement 534

                                    Partial productivity measurement defined 534

            Partial measures and measuring change in productive 

                                      Efficiency 536

            Advantages of partial measures 537

            Disadvantages of partial measures 537

            Total productivity measurement 537

                                    Profile productivity measurement 537

                                    Profit-linked productivity measurement 539

                                    Price-recovery component 540

Measuring changes in activity and process efficiency 541

                                    Activity productivity analysis 541

                                    Process productivity analysis 543

                                    Process productivity model 544

                                    Chapter 16 Learn accounting 562

                                                Learn manufacturing 563

                                                            Value by product 564

                                                            Value by stream 564

                                                            Value stream mapping 566

                                                            Value flow 566

                                                            Pull value 568

                                                            Pursue perfection 569

                                                Lean accounting 571

                                                            Focused value streams and traceability of overhead costs

                                                            Value stream costing with multiple products 573

                                                            Value stream reporting 574

                                                            Decision making 574

                                                            Performance measurement 575

                                                            Implementation 576

                                                            Appendix: value stream costing with multiple products:

                                                                        Features and characteristics costing 577

                                                Chapter 17 Cost-volume-profit analysis 590

                                                                        The break-even point in units 591

                                                                                    Operating income approach 591

                                                                                    Contribution margin approach 592

                                                                                    Profit targets 593

                                                                                    After-tax profit target 594

                                                                        Break-even point in sales dollars 595

                                                                                    Profit target 598

                                                                                    Comparison of the two approach 598

                                                                        Multiple-product analysis 598

                                                                                    Break-even point in units 599

                                                                                    Sales mix and CVP analysis 599

                                                                                    Sales dollars approach 601

                                                                        Graphical representation of CVP relationships 601

                                                                                    The profit-volume graph 601

            `                                                                       The cost-volume-profit graph 603

                                                                                    Assumptions of cost-volume-profit analysis

                                                                        Changes in the CVP variables 604

                                                                                    Introducing risk and uncertainty 606

                                                                                    Sensitivity analysis and CVP  608

                                                                        CVP analysis and activity-based costing 610

Example comparing conventional and ABC

analysis

Strategic implications: conventional ACP analysis versus ABC

                                                                                    CVP analysis and JIT 612

Chapter 18 Activity resource usage model and tactical decision making 632

                                                                        Tactical decision making 633

                                                                                    The tactical decision-making process 633

                                                                                    Qualitative factors 635

                                                                        Relevant costs and revenue 636

                                                                                    Relevant costs illustrated 636

                                                                                    Irrelevant cost illustrated 636

Relevancy, cost behavior, and the activity resource usage model 637

                                                                                    Flexible resource 637

                                                                                    Committed resource 637

                                                                        Illustrative examples of tactical decision making 638

                                                                                    Make-or buy decisions 639

                                                                                    Keep-or-drop decisions 642

                                                                                    Special-order decision 646

                                                                                    Decision to sell or process further 647

                                                            Chapter 19 Pricing and profitability analysis 669

                                                                        Market structure and price 670

                                                                        Pricing policies 671

                                                                                    Cost-based pricing 671

                                                                                    Target costing and pricing 672

                                                                                    Other pricing policies 673

                                                                        The legal system and pricing 674

                                                                                    Predatory pricing 674

                                                                                    Price discrimination 674

                                                                                    Ethics 676

                                                                        Measuring profit 676

Absorption-costing approach to measuring profit 676  

Variable-costing approach to measuring profit 679

                                                                        Profitable of segments 681

                                                                                    Profit by product line 681

                                                                                    Divisional profit 684

                                                                                    Customer profitability 685

                                                                                    Overall profit 687

                                                                        Analysis of profit-related variances 687

                                                                                    Sales price and price volume variances 687

                                                                                    Contribution margin variance 688

                                                                                    Market share and market size variances 689

                                                                        Limitation of profit measurement 690

                                                            Chapter 20 Capital investment decision 715

                                                                        Capital investment decisions 715

Payback and accounting rate of return: nondiscounting  methods 716

Payback period 716

Accounting rate of return 718

                                                            The net present value method 719

                                                                        The meaning of NPV 719

                                                                        Weighted average cost of capital 719

An example illustrating weighted average cost of      capital 720

                                    Internal rate of return 721

                                                Example with uniform cash flower 721

                                                IRR and uneven cash flows

                                    NPV versus IRR: mutually exclusive projects 722

                                                NPV compared with IRR 722

                                                Example: mutually exclusive project 724

                                    Computing after-tax cash flows 726

Conversion of gross cash flows to after-tax cash flows 726

                                                            Capital investment: advance technology and environmental

                                                            Consideration 732

                                                                        How investment differs 732

                                                                        How estimates of operation cash flows differ 733

                                                                        An example: investing in advanced technology 733

                                                                        Salvage value 735

                                                                        Discount rates 735

                                                            Appendix A: present value concepts 737

                                                                        Future value 737

                                                                        Present value 738

                                                                        Present value of a uniform series of cash flows 738

                                                                        Present value of a uniform series of cash flows 738

                                                            Appendix B: present value table 740

                                                Chapter 21 inventory management: economic order quantity, JIT,

                                                            And the theory of constrains 760

                                                            Just-in-case inventory management 761

Justifying inventory 761                      

Economic order quantity: A model for balancing acquisition and carrying costs 762

                                                                        When to order or produce 763

                                                                        Demand uncertainty and recording 764

                                                An example involving setups 765

                                                                        EOQ and inventory management 765

                                                            JIT inventory management 765

                                                                        A pull system

                                                                        Setup and carrying costs: the JIT approach 767

Discounts and price increase: JIT purchasing versus  holding inventories 771

JIT‘s limitations 771

                                                            Basic concepts of constrained optimization 772

One binding constraint and external binding constraint 773

 Multiple internal binding constraints 773

Theory of constraints 776

Operational measures 777

Five-step method for improving performance 778

                                                           

 

 

 

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