Syllabus For The Subject Technology of Dairy and Sea food

 Technology of Dairy and Sea food

Contents

Part I

Milk

 

Chapter 1Milk: Main Characteristics

1Composition and Structure

Principal Components

1.1.2 Structural Elements

1.2Milk Formation

1.3Some Properties of Milk

1.4Variability

1.5Changes

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Chapter 2

Milk Components

2.1Lactose

2.1.1 Chemical Properties.

2.1.2 Nutritional Aspects

2.1.3 Physicochemical Aspects

2.2

Salts........

2.2.1 Composition and Distribution among the Phases

2.2.2 Properties of the Salt Solution

2.2.3 Colloidal Calcium Phosphate

2.2.4 Nutritional Aspects

2.2.5 Changes in Salts

2.3Lipids

2.3.1 Constituent Fatty Acids

2.3.2 Lipid Classes

2.3.3 Nutritional Aspects

2.3.4 Autoxidation

2.3.5 Triglyceride Crystallization

2.4

Proteins

2.4.1 Chemistry of Proteins

2.4.2 Survey of Milk Proteins

2.4.3 Serum Proteins

2.4.4 Casein

2.4.5 Nutritional Aspects

Enzymes

2.5.1 Enzyme Activity

2.5.2 Some Milk Enzymes

2.5.3 Inactivation

2.6Other Components

2.6.1 Natural Components

2.6.2 Contaminants

2.6.3 Radionuclides

2.7Variability

2.7.1 Sources of Variability

2.7.2 Nature of the Variation

2.7.3 Some Important Variables

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Chapter 3

Colloidal Particles of Milk

3.1Basic Aspects

3.1.1 Surface Phenomena

3.1.2 Colloidal Interactions

3.1.3 Aggregation

3.1.4 Size Distributions

3.2Fat Globules

3.2.1 Properties

3.2.2 Emulsion Stability

3.2.3 Interactions with Air Bubbles

3.2.4 Creaming

3.2.5 Lipolysis

3.3Casein Micelles

3.3.1 Description

3.3.2 Changes

3.3.3 Colloidal Stability

3.3.4 Gel Formation and Properties

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Chapter 4

Milk Properties

4.1Solution Properties

4.2Acidity

4.3Redox Potential

4.4Flavor

4.5Density

4.6

Optical Properties

4.7Viscosity

4.7.1 Some Fluid Rheology

4.7.2 Liquid Milk Products

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Chapter 5

Microbiology of Milk

5.1General Aspects

5.1.1 Microorganisms

5.1.2 Bacteria

5.1.3 Yeasts and Molds

5.1.4 Enumeration of Microorganisms

5.1.5 Growth

5.1.6 Milk as a Substrate for Microorganisms

5.2Undesirable Microorganisms

5.2.1 Pathogenic Microorganisms

5.2.2 Spoilage Microorganisms

5.3Sources of Contamination

5.3.1 Microbial Ecology

5.3.2 Microorganisms Present in the Udder

5.3.3 Contamination during and after Milking

5.4Hygienic Measures

5.4.1 Protection of the Consumer against

Pathogenic Microorganisms

5.4.2 Measures against Spoilage Organisms

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Part II

Processes

Chapter 6

General Aspects of Processing

6.1Introduction

6.2Preservation Methods

6.3Quality Assurance

6.3.1 Concepts

6.3.2 Hazard Analysis/Critical Control Points (HACCP)

6.3.3 Quality Assurance of Raw Milk

6.4Milk Storage and Transport

6.4.1 Milk Collection and Reception

6.4.2 Milk Storage

6.4.3 Transport of Milk in the Dairy

6.5Standardizing

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Chapter 7

Heat Treatment

7.1Objectives

7.2Changes Caused by Heating

© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

7.2.1 Overview of Changes

7.2.2 Reactions of Proteins

7.2.3 Reactions of Lactose

7.2.4 Heat Coagulation

7.3Heating Intensity

7.3.1 Processes of Different Intensity

7.3.2 Kinetic Aspects

7.3.4 Thermobacteriology

7.4Methods of Heating

7.4.1 Considerations

7.4.2 Equipment

7.4.3 Heat Regeneration

7.4.4 Control

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Chapter 8

Centrifugation

8.1Cream Separation

8.2Removal of Particles

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Chapter 9

Homogenization

9.1Objectives

9.2Operation of the Homogenizer

9.3Effects of Turbulence

9.4Factors Affecting Fat Globule Size

9.5Surface Layers

9.6Colloidal Stability

9.7Homogenization Clusters

9.8Creaming

9.9Other Effects of Homogenization

9.10 Other Ways of Working

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Chapter 10

Concentration Processes

10.1 General Aspects

10.1.1 Concentration of Solutes

10.1.2 Water Activity

10.1.3 Changes Caused by Concentrating

10.1.4 The Glassy State

10.1.5 Reaction Rates

10.2 Evaporating

10.3 Drying: General Aspects

10.3.1 Objectives

10.3.2 Drying Methods

10.4 Spray Drying

10.4.1 Drier Configuration

10.4.2 Atomization

10.4.3 Change of State of the Drying Air

10.4.4 Changes of State of the Drying Droplets

10.4.5 Two-Stage Drying

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Chapter 11

Cooling and Freezing

11.1 Cooling

11.2 Freezing

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Chapter 12

Membrane Processes

12.1 General Aspects

12.1.1 Types of Processes

12.1.2 Efficiency

12.1.3 Technical Operation

12.2 Ultrafiltration

12.2.1 Composition of the Retentate

12.2.2 Permeate Flux

12.3 Reverse Osmosis

12.4 Desalting

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Chapter 13

Lactic Fermentations

13.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria

13.1.1 Taxonomy

13.1.2 Metabolism

13.1.3 Genetics

13.1.4 Bacteriocins

13.2 Acid Production

13.3 Bacteriophages

13.3.1 Phage Composition and Structure

13.3.2 Phage Multiplication

13.3.3 Phage Resistance Mechanisms

13.3.4 Inactivation

13.4 Ecological Aspects

13.5 Starters

© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

13.5.1 Composition

13.5.2 Properties

13.5.3 Shifts in Flora

13.5.4 Traditional Starter Manufacture

13.5.5 Modern Starter Manufacture

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Chapter 14

Fouling and Sanitizing

14.1 Deposit Formation

14.2 Cleaning

14.3 Disinfection

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Chapter 15

Packaging

15.1 Distribution Systems

15.2 Packaging Materials

15.3 Filling Operation

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Chapter -16

 Milk for Liquid Consumption

 

16.1 Pasteurized Milk

16.1.1 Manufacture

16.1.2 Shelf Life

16.1.3 Extended-Shelf-Life Milk

16.2 Sterilized Milk

16.2.1 Description

16.2.2 Methods of Manufacture

16.2.3 Shelf Life

16.3 Reconstituted Milks

16.4 Flavor

16.5 Nutritive Value

16.5.1 Modification of Composition

16.5.2 Loss of Nutrients

16.6 Infant Formulas

16.6.1 Human Milk

16.6.2 Formula Composition and Manufacture

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Chapter 17

Cream Products

17.1 Sterilized Cream

17.1.1 Manufacture

17.1.2 Heat Stability

17.1.3 Stability in Coffee

17.1.4 Clustering

17.2 Whipping Cream

17.2.1 Desirable Properties

17.2.2 Manufacture

17.2.3 The Whipping Process

17.3 Ice Cream

17.3.1 Manufacture

17.3.2 Physical Structure: Formation and Stability

17.3.3 Role of the Various Components

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Chapter 18

Butter

18.1 Description

18.2 Manufacture

18.2.1 Processing Scheme

18.2.2 The Churning Process

18.2.3 Working

18.3 Properties

18.3.1 Microstructure.

 18.3.2 Consistency

18.3.3 Cold Storage Defects

18.4 Cultured Butter from Sweet Cream

18.5 High-Fat Products

18.5.1 Anhydrous Milk Fat

18.5.2 Modification of Milk Fat

18.5.3 Recombined Butter

18.5.4 Low-Fat Butter Products

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Chapter 19

Concentrated Milks

19.1 Evaporated Milk

19.1.1 Manufacture

19.1.2 Product Properties

19.1.3 Heat Stability

19.1.4 Creaming

19.1.5 Age Thickening and Gelation

19.2 Sweetened Condensed Milk

© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

19.2.1 Manufacture

19.2.2 Keeping Quality

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Chapter 20

Milk Powder

20.1 Objectives

20.2 Manufacture

20.3 Hygienic Aspects

20.3.1 Bacteria in the Original Milk

20.3.2 Growth during Manufacture

20.3.3 Incidental Contamination

20.3.4 Sampling and Checking

20.4 Powder Characteristics

20.4.1 The Particle.

20.4.2 Extractable Fat

20.4.3 Free-Flowingness

20.4.4 Specific Volume

20.4.5 Dissolution

20.4.6 WPN Index

20.4.7 Flavor

20.4.8 Conclusions

20.5 Deterioration

20.6 Other Types of Milk Powder

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Chapter 21

Protein Preparations

21.1 Manufacture

21.1.1 Casein

21.1.2 Whey Protein

21.1.3 Other Products

21.2 Functional Properties

21.2.1 Solution Properties

21.2.2 Gels

21.2.3 Emulsions

21.2.4 Foams

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Chapter 22

Fermented Milks

22.1 General Aspects

22.2 Types of Fermented Milks

22.2.1 Mesophilic Fermentation

22.2.2 Thermophilic Fermentation

© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

22.2.3 Yeast–Lactic Fermentation

22.2.4 Molds in Lactic Fermentation

22.3 Cultured Buttermilk

22.4 Yogurt

22.4.1 The Yogurt Bacteria

22.4.2 Manufacture

22.4.3 Physical Properties

22.4.4 Flavor Defects and Shelf Life

22.5 Nutritional Aspects

22.5.1 Composition

22.5.2 Nutritional Value

22.5.3 Probiotics

22.5.4 Prebiotics

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Part IV

Cheese

 

Chapter 23

Principles of Cheese Making

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Essential Process Steps

23.3 Changes Occurring

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Chapter 24

Cheese Manufacture

24.1 Milk Properties and Pretreatment

24.1.1 The Raw Milk

24.1.2 Milk Treatment

24.2 Starters

24.3 Enzyme-Induced Clotting

24.3.1 Enzymes Used

24.3.2 The Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction

24.3.3 Aggregation

24.3.4 Gel Formation

24.3.5 The Renneting Time

24.3.6 Clotting of Heat-Treated Milk

24.4 Curd Making

24.4.1 Clotting

24.4.2 Accumulation of Various Components

24.4.3 Concentrating before Clotting

24.4.4 Syneresis

24.4.5 Acid Production and Washing

24.4.6 Separation of Curd and Whey

© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

24.5 Shaping and Pressing

24.6 Salting

24.6.1 Mass Transport during Salting

24.6.2 Important Variables

24.6.3 Distribution of Salt and Water after Salting

24.7 Curing, Storage, and Handling

24.7.1 Temperature

24.7.2 Air Conditions

24.7.3 Rind Treatment

24.7.4 Packaging

24.8 Cheese Composition and Yield

24.8.1 Variables Involved

24.8.2 Yield

24.8.3 Standardizing the Milk

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Chapter 25

Cheese Ripening and Properties

25.1 Lactic Fermentation

25.2 Enzyme Sources

25.3 Proteolysis

25.3.1 Methods of Characterization

25.3.2 Milk Proteinases

25.3.3 Clotting Enzymes

25.3.4 Enzymes of Lactic Acid Bacteria

25.3.5 Enzymes of Nonstarter Organisms

25.3.6 Interaction between Enzyme Systems

25.3.7 Ultrafiltration of Cheese Milk

25.4 Lipolysis

25.5 Development of Flavor

25.5.1 Description

25.5.2 Formation of Flavor Compounds

25.6 Development of Texture

25.6.1 Structure

25.6.2 Consistency

25.7 Accelerated Ripening

25.8 Nutritive Value and Safety

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Chapter 26

Microbial Defects

26.1 Coliform Bacteria

26.2 Butyric Acid Bacteria

26.3

Lactobacilli

26.4 Heat-Resistant

Streptococci

Propionic acid bacteria

Organisms on the rind

Other aspects

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27 Cheese varieties

Overview

Variations in manufacture

Types of cheese

Fresh cheese

Quarg

Cottage cheese

Gouda-type cheese

Manufacture

Properties and defects

Cheddar-type cheese

Manufacture

Properties

Swiss and pasta-filata types

Emmentaler

Mozzarella

Cheeses with a specific flora

Soft cheese with surface flora

Blue-veined cheese

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