Syllabus For The Subject Bakery Technology

 Bakery Technology

Chapter 1: Basic Food Science

Carbohydrates

Sources of carbohydrates used in baking

Carbohydrate synthesis  

Simple vs. complex

Physical and chemical differentiation

Monosaccharides

Sugar: Disaccharides and trisaccharides

Starch

Dextrins

Gelatinization of starches

Retrogradation of starch

Acrylamide formation

Glycemic index vs. glycemic response

Pentosans

Sources of pentosans in baking

Structure

Physical and chemical differentiation

Functions and effects during baking

Fiber

Sources of fiber

Defi nition of dietary fiber Structure

Properties of fi ber in food

Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics

Proteins and enzymes

Proteins

Sources of proteins

Amino acids

Classifi cation of proteins

Structure of proteins

Properties of proteins

Proteins of wheat

Enzymes

Sources of enzymes

Classifi cation and nomenclature of enzymes

Lock-and-key, induced fi t of enzymes

Properties of enzymes

Lipids

Source of lipids

Nomenclature

Chemical composition

Fatty acids

Fatty acid naming protocols

Saturated vs. unsaturated

Cis vs. trans

Short- and medium-chain fatty acids

Mono-, di- and triglycerides

Sterols and stanols

Other lipids

Physical aspects

Liquid, plastic and solid forms

Melting point

Crystallinity

Hydrogenation and interesterifi

cation

Oxidation

Autoxidation mechanism

Antioxidants

Hydrolysis and polymerization

Physical chemistry

Acid-base reactions

Electrolytes

Titration

Active acidity

The pH concept

Buffers

pH determination

Role of pH in baking

Buffering action of proteins

Oxidation and reduction

The redox potential

Estimation of redox potential

Role of oxidation in baking

Role of pentosans

Role of thiols and disulfi

des

Role of fl our lipids

Dough physics: colloids and rheology

States of matter

Baking Science & Technology

Molecular forces

Colloidal systems

Emulsions

Foams

Colloidal character of dough

Colloidal aspects of fl our particles

Starch

Dextrins

Pentosans

Water solubles

Flour proteins

Role of polar fl our lipids

Chemical bonds

Water in dough

Adsorption vs. absorption

Cell structure in dough

Dough rheology

 

 

 

Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients

Part A: Major Ingredients

Wheat flour

Structure of the wheat kernel

Components of wheat flour

Flour treatment

Flour quality

Flour absorption

Flour storage

Flour milling

Flour types

Pastry, cake and cookie flour

Germ and bran as fl our components and ingredients

Whole-grain flour

Non-wheat flours

Rye

Soy flour

Masa (nixtamalized corn flour)

Sweeteners

Sucrose

Corn syrups and dextrose

Honey

Malt and malt syrups

Lactose

Table of Contents

Sorghum and maple syrups

Role in breadmaking

Role in cakemaking

Role in cookies and crackers

Shortenings

Sources and composition

Physical characteristics

Shortening processing

Categories

Bakery applications

Frying fats

Recent issues involving bakery shortenings

Water

Chemical nature of water

Sources of water

pH variability

Mineral constituents

Water treatment

Water’s functions in dough and batter

Ice as an ingredient

 

 

Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients

Part B: Minor ingredients

Leavening

Yeast

Bacteria

Chemical leavening

Air and steam

Dairy

Milk’s composition

Commercial forms of milk

Cheese

Whey products

Storage stability

Nonfat dry milk’s functionality

Practical aspects of milk products in baking

Eggs

Structure of eggs

Processing of eggs

Commercial forms of eggs

Functions in baking

Recent developments

Starch

Wheat starch

Supplementary starches

Properties and functions

Starch’s role in bread baking ...................................................................... 356

Cake, cookie, cracker and other applications

Recent developments

Fiber

Composition

Fiber ingredients and their processing

Bakery applications

Bulking agents

Prebiotics and probiotics

 

 

 

Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients

Part C: Micro ingredients

Oxidation, reduction, yeast foods and buffers

Oxidation and reduction

Reducing agents

Yeast foods and buffers

Amylase in dough

Cereal proteinases

Malt

Exogenous enzymes

Gluten

Nature of gluten

Gliadin

Glutenin

Glutenin-gliadin ratios

Glutenin interactions during mixing

Sulfhydryl and disulfi

de groups

Protein-lipid interaction

Vital wheat gluten

Proteins

Concentrates and isolates

Allergens

Salt

Salt sources and processing

Sea salt

Forms and grades

Specifi c applications

Salt functionality

Improvers

Emulsifi ers and surfactants

Compounds

Functionality of improvers

Antioxidants and antimicrobials

Antioxidant ingredients

Antimicrobial ingredients

Spoilage organisms

Gums (hydrocolloids)

Sources

How they work

Functions in baking

Enrichment and fortifi

cation

Mandatory vs. voluntary

Contemporary issues

Technical considerations

Storage and handling

Beyond vitamins and minerals

 

 

Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients

Part D: Characterizing Ingredients

Fruits

Fresh, canned and frozen fruits

Dried and dehydrated fruits

Glacé and candied fruit

Nuts

True nuts

Seed nuts

Flavors

Natural, artifi cial and mixtures

Flavor components

Extract processing

Vanilla

Storing fl avor extracts

Spices

Sources

Processing

Colors

Color additives vs. colorants

Certifi able vs. exempt

Dyes and lakes

Baking Science & Technology

 

Caramel color

Spice blends

Reactive colors

Cocoa and chocolate

Chocolate

Cocoa powders

Confectionery coatings

Bloom

 Fabricated particulates

 

 

Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients

Part E: Ingredient Systems

Ingredient components

Ingredient handling

Processing

Mixing equipment

Blending methods

Packaging

 

 

Chapter 3: Crops and their processing

(By C.E. Walker and J. Li)

Eight principal cereal grains of commerce

Barley

Corn (maize)

The millets

Oats

Rice

Rye

Sorghum (milo)

Wheat

Minor and pseudocereals and special wheats

Amarant

Coix (adley, Job’s tears)

Emmer and spelt

Kamut

Quinoa

Teff ...

Triticale

Pulses and oilseeds

Non-grain oils

Coconut

Olive

Palm

Oilseeds

Canola (rape)

Flax

Peanut

Poppy

Saffl

ower

Sesame

Soy

Sunfl

ower

Lentil

Lupin

Crop improvement

 

 

Chapter 4: Quality Laboratory

(By T. Cogswell)

The bake test

Physical dough testing

AlveoConsistograph

Extensograph

Farinograph

Mixograph

Rheograph

Dough quality controller systems

Research Extensometer

Maturograph

Flourometer method

Dough shock test

Firmness test .

Physiochemical tests

Near-infrared refl ectance analysis

Flour color

The slick test

Colorimeter instruments

Ash determination

Moisture measurement methods

Direct (or chemical) methods

Indirect (or physical) methods

Flour moisture determination

Baking Science & Technology

The vacuum oven method

The air oven method

The air oven aluminum plate method ..

 Protein determinations

Kjeldahl procedure

Biuret method

Crude gluten

Sedimentation tests

Acidity determinations

pH determination

Total titratable acidity (TTA)

Free fatty acid titrations

Iodine value

Enzymatic activity methods

Diastatic activity of flour

Amylograph method

Rapid Visco Analyzer method 

Falling Number method

Proteolytic activity

Determination of sugar

Gas production methods

Miscellaneous determinations

Lipid content

Crude fiber

Dietary fiber

Bread scoring

External characteristics

Internal characteristics

Flavor factors.....

How to set up a bakery laboratory

Testing of raw materials

Flour

Sugar

Shortening, fats and oils

Measurements during processing

Finished product monitoring

Moisture

Weight

Dimensions

Salt and fat content

Suggested laboratory equipment

 

 

Equipment for general use

Equipment for specifi c tests

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5: Sanitation and Regulations

Sanitation: A prerequisite to safe food

Sanitation, food safety and foodborne illness

Elements of a good sanitation program

Sanitation as a system

Areas your sanitation programs should address

Regulating Sanitation

Sanitation regulations

Regulatory inspection

Preparing for inspection

The inspection

Developing sanitation systems

Sanitation SOPs

Good manufacturing practices

Preventive maintenance

PM programs

Establishing preventive maintenance programs

Training and education

Why educate and train?

Understand your audience

Educational needs

The fi nal element

Assuring water quality and safety

Ice

Water quality analysis

Water quality and its effects on process operations

Cleaning and sanitizing

Plant water systems

Condition and cleanliness of food contact surfaces

Constraints in cleaning dry processing operations

How to clean

Personal hygiene and employee health

Hand washing

Disease control

Uniforms and garments

Hair restraints Jewelry

Personnel facilities

Baking Science & Technology

Product protection programs

Sanitary design of equipment

Building design and maintenance

Floors

Drains

Walls

Ceilings

Lighting

Doors

Traffic

Warehouse design

Grounds

Glass and brittle plastic

Allergen control

Vendor certification

Receiving and storage

Control in batching and blending

Production control and scheduling

Control of rework

Tracking and traceability

Cleaning

Education

Chemical handling and control

MSDS sheets

Chemicals

Lubricants

Pest management

Premises for program building

Pest exclusion

Monitoring

Chemicals for pest control

Documenting the program

Verifi cation and recordkeeping

Forms

Proper recordkeeping

 

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