Chapter 1 Fundamental Concepts and Definitions 1

1.1 Introduction and definition of thermodynamics 1

1.2 Dimensions and units 1

1.3 Concept of continuum 3

1.4 Systems, surroundings and universe 4

1.5 Properties and state 5

1.6 Thermodynamic path, process and cycle 5

1.7 Thermodynamic equilibrium 6

1.8 Reversibility and irreversibility 7

1.9 Quasi-static process 7

1.10 Some thermodynamic properties 8

1.11 Energy and its forms 11

1.12 Heat and work 13

1.13 Gas laws 14

1.14 Ideal gas 14

1.15 Dalton’s law, Amagat’s law and property of mixture of gases 15

1.16 Real gas 17

1.17 Vander Waals and other equations of state for real gas 20

Examples 22

Exercises 38

Chapter 2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 40

2.1 Introduction 40

2.2 Principle of temperature measurement and Zeroth law of thermodynamics 40

2.3 Temperature scales 42

2.4 Temperature measurement 43

Examples 46

Exercises 49

Chapter 3 First Law of Thermodynamics 50

3.1 Introduction 50

3.2 Thermodynamic processes and calculation of work 50

3.3 Non-flow work and flow work 57

3.4 First law of thermodynamics 59

3.5 Internal energy and enthalpy 62

3.6 Specific heats and their relation with internal energy and enthalpy 63

3.7 First law of thermodynamics applied to open systems 64

3.8 Steady flow systems and their analysis 65

3.9 First law applied to engineering systems 68

3.10 Unsteady flow systems and their analysis 73

3.11 Limitations of first law of thermodynamics 75

Examples 76

Exercises 94

Chapter 4 Second Law of Thermodynamics 97

4.1 Introduction 97

4.2 Heat reservoir 97

4.3 Heat engine 97

4.4 Heat pump and refrigerator 99

4.5 Statements for IInd law of thermodynamics 100

4.6 Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements of IInd law of

thermodynamics 101

4.7 Reversible and irreversible processes 103

4.8 Carnot cycle and Carnot engine 105

4.9 Carnot theorem and its corollaries 108

4.10 Thermodynamic temperature scale 109

Examples 113

Exercises 128

Chapter 5 Entropy 131

5.1 Introduction 131

5.2 Clausius inequality 131

5.3 Entropy – A property of system 134

5.4 Principle of entropy increase 138

5.5 Entropy change during different thermodynamic processes 140

5.6 Entropy and its relevance 144

5.7 Thermodynamic property relationship 144

5.8 Third law of thermodynamics 146

Examples 146

Exercises 161

Chapter 6 Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Substance 164

6.1 Introduction 164

6.2 Properties and important definitions 164

6.3 Phase transformation process 166

6.4 Graphical representation of pressure, volume and temperature 167

6.5 Thermodynamic relations involving entropy 170

6.6 Properties of steam 172

6.7 Steam tables and mollier diagram 175

6.8 Dryness fraction measurement 177

Examples 181

Exercises 199

(x)

Chapter 7 Availability and General Thermodynamic Relations 202

7.1 Introduction 202

7.2 Availability or exergy 203

7.3 Availability associated with heat and work 207

7.4 Effectiveness or second law efficiency 210

7.5 Second law analysis of steady flow systems 211

7.6 General thermodynamic relations 213

Examples 230

Exercises 248

Chapter 8 Vapour Power Cycles 250

8.1 Introduction 250

8.2 Performance parameters 250

8.3 Carnot vapour power cycle 251

8.4 Rankine cycle 253

8.5 Desired thermodynamic properties of working fluid 255

8.6 Parametric analysis for performance improvement in Rankine cycle 256

8.7 Reheat cycle 258

8.8 Regenerative cycle 260

8.9 Binary vapour cycle 268

8.10 Combined Cycle 270

8.11 Combined Heat and Power 272

8.12 Different steam turbine arrangements 273

Examples 273

Exercises 327

Chapter 9 Gas Power Cycles 330

9.1 Introduction 330

9.2 Air-standard cycles 330

9.3 Brayton cycle 340

9.4 Regenerative gas turbine cycle 345

9.5 Reheat gas turbine cycle 347

9.6 Gas turbine cycle with intercooling 351

9.7 Gas turbine cycle with reheat and regeneration 353

9.8 Gas turbine cycle with reheat and intercooling 354

9.9 Gas turbine cycle with regeneration, reheat and intercooling 355

9.10 Gas turbine irreversibilites and losses 355

9.11 Compressor and turbine efficiencies 358

9.12 Ericsson cycle 362

9.13 Stirling cycle 364

Examples 365

Exercises 396

Chapter 10 Fuel and Combustion 399

10.1 Introduction 399

10.2 Types of fuels 401

10.3 Calorific value of fuel 402

(xi)

10.4 Bomb calorimeter 402

10.5 Gas calorimeter 404

10.6 Combustion of fuel 404

10.7 Combustion analysis 407

10.8 Determination of air requirement 409

10.9 Flue gas analysis 411

10.10 Fuel cells 413

Examples 413

Exercises 434

Chapter 11 Boilers and Boiler Calculations 436

11.1 Introduction 436

11.2 Types of boilers 437

11.3 Requirements of a good boiler 438

11.4 Fire tube and water tube boilers 438

11.5 Simple vertical boiler 442

11.6 Cochran boiler 443

11.7 Lancashire boiler 444

11.8 Cornish boiler 446

11.9 Locomotive boilers 446

11.10 Nestler boilers 448

11.11 Babcock and Wilcox boiler 448

11.12 Stirling boiler 449

11.13 High pressure boiler 450

11.14 Benson boiler 451

11.15 Loeffler boiler 452

11.16 Velox boiler 452

11.17 La Mont boiler 453

11.18 Fluidized bed boiler 454

11.19 Waste heat boiler 456

11.20 Boiler mountings and accessories 459

11.21 Boiler draught 467

11.22 Natural draught 467

11.23 Artificial draught 474

11.24 Equivalent evaporation 477

11.25 Boiler efficiency 478

11.26 Heat balance on boiler 478

11.27 Boiler trial 481

Examples 481

Exercises 502

Chapter 12 Steam Engine 506

12.1 Introduction 506

12.2 Classification of steam engines 506

12.3 Working of steam engine 508

12.4 Thermodynamic cycle 515

12.5 Indicator diagram 518

(xii)

12.6 Saturation curve and missing quantity 519

12.7 Heat balance and other performance parameters 521

12.8 Governing of simple steam engines 525

12.9 Compound steam engine 527

12.10 Methods of compounding 527

12.11 Indicator diagram for compound steam engine 530

12.12 Calculations for compound steam engines 531

12.13 Governing of compound steam engine 533

12.14 Uniflow engine 535

Examples 536

Exercises 561

Chapter 13 Nozzles 564

13.1 Introduction 564

13.2 One dimensional steady flow in nozzles 565

13.3 Choked flow 576

13.4 Off design operation of nozzle 577

13.5 Effect of friction on nozzle 580

13.6 Supersaturation phenomenon in steam nozzles 582

13.7 Steam injector 584

Examples 584

Exercises 608

Chapter 14 Steam Turbines 611

14.1 Introduction 611

14.2 Working of steam turbine 612

14.3 Classification of steam turbines 614

14.4 Impulse turbine 619

14.5 Velocity diagram and calculations for impulse turbines 623

14.6 Impulse turbine blade height 632

14.7 Calculations for compounded impulse turbine 634

14.8 Reaction turbines 637

14.9 Losses in steam turbines 644

14.10 Reheat factor 646

14.11 Steam turbine control 649

14.12 Governing of steam turbines 650

14.13 Difference between throttle governing and nozzle control governing 654

14.14 Difference between impulse and reaction turbines 654

Examples 655

Exercises 680

Chapter 15 Steam Condensor 684

15.1 Introduction 684

15.2 Classification of Condenser 685

15.3 Air Leakage 691

15.4 Condenser Performance Measurement 692

15.5 Cooling Tower 693

Examples 695

Exercises 704

(xiii)

Chapter 16 Reciprocating and Rotary Compressor 706

16.1 Introduction 706

16.2 Reciprocating compressors 708

16.3 Thermodynamic analysis 709

16.4 Actual indicator diagram 715

16.5 Multistage compression 716

16.6 Control of reciprocating compressors 722

16.7 Reciprocating air motor 722

16.8 Rotary compressors 723

16.9 Centrifugal compressors 728

16.10 Axial flow compressors 732

16.11 Surging and choking 733

16.12 Stalling 735

16.13 Centrifugal compressor characteristics 736

16.14 Axial flow compressor characteristics 739

16.15 Comparative study of compressors 740

Examples 742

Exercises 767

Chapter 17 Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines 770

17.1 Introduction 770

17.2 Classification of IC engines 771

17.3 IC Engine terminology 772

17.4 4-Stroke SI Engine 773

17.5 2-Stroke SI Engine 776

17.6 4-Stroke CI Engine 776

17.7 2-Stroke CI Engine 777

17.8 Thermodynamic cycles in IC engines 778

17.9 Indicator diagram and power measurement 780

17.10 Combustion in SI engine 783

17.11 Combustion in CI engines 785

17.12 IC engine fuels 786

17.13 Morse test 787

17.14 Comparative study of IC engines 788

Examples 790

Exercises 802

Chapter 18 Introduction to Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 805

18.1 Introduction 805

18.2 Performance parameters 807

18.3 Unit of refrigeration 808

18.4 Carnot refrigeration cycles 808

18.5 Air refrigeration cycles 809

18.6 Vapour compression cycles 813

18.7 Multistage vapour compression cycle 819

18.8 Absorption refrigeration cycle 820

(xiv)

18.9 Modified absorption refrigeration cycle 822

18.10 Heat pump systems 823

18.11 Refrigerants 824

18.12 Desired properties of refrigerants 827

18.13 Psychrometry 827

18.14 Air conditioning systems 835

18.15 Comparison of different refrigeration methods 837

Examples 838

Exercises 855

Chapter 19 Jet Propulsion and Rocket Engines 858

19.1 Introduction 858

19.2 Principle of jet propulsion 858

19.3 Classification of jet propulsion engines 860

19.4 Performance of jet propulsion engines 861

19.5 Turbojet engine 863

19.6 Turbofan engine 867

19.7 Turboprop engine 868

19.8 Turbojet engine with afterburner 868

19.9 Ramjet engine 869

19.10 Pulse jet engine 870

19.11 Principle of rocket propulsion 871

19.12 Rocket engine 872

19.13 Solid propellant rocket engines 872

19.14 Liquid propellant rocket engines 873

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