Syllabus For The Subject Surveying & Leveling

SURVEYING & LEVELING

Contents

1.Introduction

Plans and maps

Applications of surveying

Primary division in surveying

Classification of surveying

Measurements

Units of measurements

Scales

Types of graphical scales

Vernier scale

Special forms of verniers

Shrunk scale

Methods of locating a point in plain

Survey with respect to two reference points

Principles of surveying

Survey of India and topological maps

Phases of works in surveying

Questions

 

2 Errors in surveying

Types of errors

Sources of errors

Most probable value of accidental error

Errors in the computed quantities

Accuracy in measurement

Relative accuracy between linear and

Angular measurements

Significant figures and rounding off figures

Questions

 

3 Measurement of horizontal distances using chain and tape

Approximate methods of distance measurements

Measurements by chaining

Types of chains

Advantages and disadvantages of

Chain over steel band

Testing and adjustment of chains

Tapes

Accessories required for horizontal

Measurements

Ranging a survey line

Chaining a horizontal line

Measurement of distances on

Sloping ground

Precise measurement/base line

Measurement

Errors in chaining

Chain and tape corrections

Questions

 

4 Chain surveying

Testing a triangle for its condition

Network of triangles

Selection of stations

Offsets

Setting out perpendicular offsets

Allowable length of offset

Equipment required for chain survey

Field work

Plotting a chain survey

Conventional symbols and colours

Problems in chaining

Obstacles in chaining

Cross staff survey

Traversing with chain and type only

Questions

 

5 Angle and direction measurements with compass

Compass

Differences between prismatic compass

And surveyor’s compass

Working and use of compass

Magnetic bearing and true bearing

Whole circle bearing and quadrantal bearing system

Magnetic dip

Magnetic declination

Fore bearing and back bearing

Computation of angles from bearings

Computation of bearings if bearing

Of a line and included angles are given

Local attraction

Personal errors

Testing and adjusting the compass

Questions

 

6 Compass surveying

Accessories for compass survey

Fiels work

Check in compass survey

Plotting

Closing error and its adjustment

Errors in compass survey

Limits of precision

Omitted measurements

Questions

7 Plane table surveying

Plane table and its accessories

Working operations

Methods of plane tabling

Required accuracy in centring

Errors in plane table surveying

Advantages and limitations of plane table survey

 

8 Levelling

Definition of basic terms  used in leveling

Methods of leveling

Leveling instruments

Types of levels

Tripod for the level

Leveling staff

Relative merits of self reading and target staffs

Working principle of telescope

Parts of telescope

Advantages and disadvantages of internal

Focusing telescope

Fundamental axes of a level

Temporary adjustments of a level

Principles of direct leveling

Terms used in leveling

Types of leveling

Simple of leveling

Simple leveling

Differential leveling

Fly leveling

\profile leveling

Cross-sectioning

Hand signals during leveling

Effect of curvature

Effects of refraction

Distance of visible horizon

Balancing backsights  and force sights

Reciprocal leveling

Difficulties in leveling

Level tube and its sensitivity

Errors in leveling

Degree of precision

Barometric leveling

Hypsometry

Additional problems

Questions

9 Contouring

Contour intervals

Characteristics of contours

Methods of contouring

Direct method of contouring

Indirect contouring

Interpolation of contours

Drawing contours

Contour gradient

Uses of contour maps

Questions

 

10 Theodolite surveying

Main parts of a vernier theodolite

Technical terms associated with

Measurement with theodolite

Fundamental axes of theodolite

Temporary adjustments of a theodolite

Measurement of horizontal angle

Measurement of horizontal angle by

Repetition method

Measurement of horizontal angle by

Method of reiteration

Measurement of vertical angle

Field operations with theodolite

Theodlite traversing

Plotting and adjusting chosing error

Trigonometric leveling

Errors in theodolite surveying

Good practices in theodolite survey

Additional problems on theodolite survey

Questions

 

11 Trigonometric leveling

Base of the object accessible

Base of object inaccessible-single plane

Method possible

Base of the object inaccessible –double

Plane method is necessary

Height of an elevated object above

The ground if its base is also visible

Questions

 

12 permanent adjustment of dumpy level and theodolite

Required permanent adjustments in dumpy level

First adjustment of dumpy level

Adjustment of dumpy level

Adjustment of cross hair ring

Third adjustment of dumpy level

Adjustment of line of sight /collimation

Required permanent adjustment in theodolite

First adjustment of theodolite

Adjustment of plate level

Second adjustment of theodolite

Adjustment of horizontal axis

Third adjustment (adjustment of cross hairs)

Fourth adjustment and fifth adjustments

Adjustment of altitude level and vertical index frame

Questions

 

13 Computation of areas

Methods of computation of areas

Computation areas from form field notes

Computation of areas of regular figures

Areas from offsets at regular intervals

Areas from offsets at irregular intervals

Computation of area from latitudes and departures

Area by coordinates

Computing areas from maps

Graphical methods of computing area from maps

Mechanical methods for computing area of a plan

Amsler polar planimeter

Theory of palnimeter

Questions

 

14 Computation of volumes

Computation of earthwork from cross-sections

Formula for computing areas of cross-sections

Cross-sectional areas in filling

Equations for volume of simple solids

Computation of volume by trapezoidal rule

Computation of volume by prismoidal rule

Computation of earthwork from spot levels

Computation of volume from contours

 

 

15 Minor instruments

Hand level

Burel hand level

Clinometers

The sextants

Pentograph     

Questions

Index   

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