Syllabus For The Subject Basic Electronics

 

BASIC ELECTRONICS

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

1 An introduction to electronics

Introduction

A brief history of electronics

Transducers

Signals and frequency spectrum

Functional building blocks and electronic systems

Questions

 

2 Semiconductors, materials and junction diodes

Classification of solids

Atomic structure and energy levels

Energy levels

Extrinsic semiconductors

Conduction  in metals and semiconductors

Conduction in metals

Conduction in semiconductors

Semiconductors diode

Diode under forward bias condition

Diode under reverse bias condition

Current-voltage characteristics of a p-n junction diode

Diode breakdown

Diode resistance

Circuit model of a p-n junction diode

The Ideal-diode model

The constant-voltage-drop model

Piecewise-linear model

Solved problems

Questions

 

3 Junction diodes and their applications

DC power supply

Rectifier circuits

The half-wave rectifier

The full-wave rectifier

The bridge rectifier

Rectifier with a shunt capacitor fitter

Rectifier with zener shunt regulator

Zener diode

Zener shunt regulator

Photodiode

Light emitting diode

Solar cells

Solved problems

Questions

 

4 BJTs and FETs

Introduction

Bipolar junction transistor

Physical structure and modes of operation

Principle of operation of n-p-n transistor

Relation between Ic,Ib andIb

Input and output characteristics of bipolar transistors

Circuit symbols and current conventions

Biasing of BJT and amplifier action

Fixed of Bias circuit

Bias stabilization

Self-bias circuit

Stability factors

Bias design of a well-stabilized circuit

Junction field-effect transistor

Physical structure of a JEET

Principle of operation

Current voltage characteristics of a JEFT

Bias design of JEFT

Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor

Physical structure of a MOSFET

Operation of enhancement-type MOSFET

Operation of depletion-type MOSFET

Current voltage characteristics of a MOSFET

Complementary MOSFET

Solved problems

Questions

 

5 Transistor biasing and small signal amplifiers

Introduction

Basic features of an amplifier

Biasing of an amplifier

Amplifier gain

Input and output resistance

Signal handling capacity

Frequency response and bandwidth

Amplifier classifications

Small signal amplifier

Voltage signal vs current signal

Large signal or power amplifer

Small signal common emitter amplifier

Coupling and bypass capacitors

Graphical analysis of small signal CE amplifier

Linearity and distortion

Small signal ac equivalent circuit

Small signal transistor models

Hybrid parameter model

Transistor re model

Hybrid –model

Amplifier analysis using small signal models

Amplifier analysis using re model-mid-frequency gain

Low-frequency response of CE amplifier

High-frequency cut-off due to device limitation

Small signal common collector (CC) amplifier

Mid –frequency gain

Input and output impedance

Small signal JFET and MOSFET amplifier

JEET amplifier

Enhancement MOSFET amplifier

Solved problems

 

Chapter-6 Feedback amplifiers and oscillators

Introduction

Feedback principle

Advantages of negative feedback amplifiers

Gain stability

Noise reduction

Bandwidth enhancement

Improvement in linearity and signal handling capacity

Feedback amplifier

Feedback amplifier topologies

Negative feedback amplifier circuits

Oscillators

Classification of oscillators

Principle of sinusoidal feedback oscillation

RC phase shift oscillators

Wien-bridge oscillators

High frequency LC oscillators

Non-sinusoidal oscillators

Solved problems

Questions

 

Chapter -7 Operational amplifiers

Introduction

Differential amplifier

Circuit configurations

Common –mode rejection ratio

Dual-input balanced-output differential amplifier

Voltage gain, input and output resistance

Constant current bias

Operational amplifier

Block diagram representation

Schematic symbol and pin configuration

The Ideal op-amp

Virtual ground concept

Parameters of op-amp

Amplifiers using operational amplifier

Inverting amplifier

Non –inverting amplifier

The summing amplifier

The difference amplifier

The buffer amplifier

Linear circuit applications of operational amplifier

Voltage-to-current and current –to-voltage converter

Integrator

Differentiator

Filter and oscillator applications of op-amp

Active filters

Oscillators

Solved problems

Questions

 

 

8 Digital logic and combinational circuits

Introduction

Binary number systems and codes

Binary-to-decimal conversion

Decimal-to-binary conversion

Hexadecimal and octal number system

Binary coded decimal (BCD) code

Basic logic gates and truth tables

OR operation

AND operation

NOT operation

NAND operation

NOR operation

Exclusive –OR (XOR) operation

Boolean algebra and De morgan’s theorem

Booleah  laws

Duality theorem

De morgan’s theorems

Universality of NAND and NOR gates

Logic circuits

Sum-of-products method

Product-of sums method

Simplification of Boolean expressions

Designing combinational logic networks

Implementation of logic gates

BJT inverter (NOT gate) using transistor switch

Diode logic

Resistor transistor logic (RTL) NOR gate

Diode logic

Resistor transistor logic (RTL) NOR gate

Diode transistor logic (DTL) NAND gate

Transistor-transistor logic (ITL) NAND gate

NMOS inverter and logic gates

CMOS inverter and logic gates

Digital arithmetic

Addition of binary numbers

Subtraction of binary numbers

Multiplication of binary numbers

Binary division

The arithmetic logic unit

Solved problems

Questions

 

 

9 Sequential logic circuits

Introduction

Flip –flop

Master-slave SR flip-flop

JK flip-flop

Master-slave  SR flip-flop

JK flip-flop

Master –slave JK flip-flop

D flip-flop

Registers

Types of shirt registers

Serial-parallel data transfer

Right –shift left-shift register

Counters

Asynchronous (ripple) counter

Non-binary counter

BCD decade counter

Decoding a counter

The 555 timer

Astable multivibrator

Questions

 

 

Chapter -10 Analog –to-digital-to –analog conversion

Introduction

Basic principles of analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion

Methods of analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion

Digital-ramp ADC

Successive-approximation ADC

Specifications of analog-to-digital converters

Methods of digital-to –analog conversion

Binary-weighted resistor D/A converter

Resistor ladder D/A converter

Specifications for D/A converter

Questions

 

Chapter-11 Data acquisition systems

Introduction

Principles of multiplexing

Sample-and-hold circuit

Multichannel data logging system

Questions

 

12 Memory systems

Introduction

Memory parameters

Classification and basic function of memory devices

Memory classification

Basic functions of memory devices

Memory addressing and data buses

Read-only memories

Organization of a simple diode matrix of ROM

Programmable read-only memory

Erasable programmable ROM

Electrically erasable prom

Flash memory

Applications of ROMs

Random-access memory

Organization of a RAM chip

Static RAM CELL

MOS dynamic RAM cell

Solved problems

Questions

 

Chapter-13 Microcomputers and microprocessors

Introduction

Evolution of microprocessor chips

Microprocessor architecture

Arithmetic and logic unit

Register array

Timing and control unit

System buses

Working of microprocessor

Microprocessor programming

Low-level languages

High- level languages

Operating systems

Microprocessor peripherals and interfacing

Common peripherals

Interfacing

Microcontrollers

Microprocessor application examples

Recent advances in microprocessor architecture

Questions

 

 

Chapter-14 Communication systems

Introduction to analog communications

Modulation schemes

Amplitude modulation

Frequency modulation

Phase modulation

Amplitude and frequency modulation: A comparison

Demodulation schemes

Demodulation principle

AM detectors

FM detectors

Introduction to digital communications

Digital system block design

Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions

Error-detection and digital-encoding system

Questions

 

Chapter-15 Fiber optics and the information age

Introduction to optical fiber

Advantages and disadvantages of optical fiber

Evolution of optical fiber

Propagation and loss mechanism in optical fiber

Manufacture of optical fiber

Sources and detectors for optical communication

Light-emitting diodes

Semiconductor lasers

Operational parameters of lasers as optical sources

General theory of optical detectors

Photo detectors and integrated optic receiver

Fiber optics in communication

Optical communication systems

Coherent optical communication systems

Broadband network integration

Multiplexing and de-multiplexing

Applications of fiber optic communication

Optoelectronics and the information age

Optical fiber-A media for information transmission

Future direction of technological advancements

Questions

 

Chapter-16 Fundamentals of information technology

Introduction

Storage media, database management and data mining

Storage media

Database management system

Distributed database

Data warehouse

Data mining

Computer networks

Network services

Network functions and topologies

ISDN and ATM technology

Network security

Multimedia: applications and challenges

Components of multimedia

Challenges in multimedia

Internet and web technology

History of internet

What is internet and how does it work

Internet addresses

Internet services and resources

World Wide Web technology

Electronic commerce

What is E-commerce?

How E-commerce works?

Electronic data interchange

E-commerce over the internet

E-commerce in India

E-commerce security

Internet security and ethics

Security issues

Legal issues

Professional ethical issues

Technological and social issues of IT

Technology issues

Social issues

Questions

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

      

 

 

 

 

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