Syllabus For The Subject Electronic Communication



1 Introduction to communications systems


Communications systems







Need for modulation

Bandwidth requirements

Sine wave and fourier series review

Frequency spectra of nonsinusoidal waves


External noise

Atmospheric noise

Extraterrestrial noise

Industrial noise

Internal noise

Thermal agitation noise

Shot noise

Transit-time noise

Miscellaneous noise

Noise calculations

Addition of noise due to several sources

Addition of noise due to several amplifiers in cascade

Noise in reactive circuits

Noise figure

Signal-to-noise ratio

Definition of noise figure

Calculation of noise figure

Noise figure from equivalent noise resistance

Noise figure from measurement

Noise temperature


3 Amplitude modulation

Amplitude modulation theory

Frequency spectrum of the AM wave

Representation of AM

Power relations in the AM wave

Generation of AM

Basic requirements-Comparison of levels

Grid-modulated class C amplifier

Plate-modulated class C amplifier

Modulated transistor amplifiers



4 Single-sideband techniques

Evolution and description of SSB

Suppression of carrier

Effect of nonlinear resistance on added signals

The balanced modulator

Suppression of unwanted sideband

The filter system

The phase-shift method

The ‘’third’’ method

System evaluation and comparison

Extensions of SSB

Forms of amplitude modulation

Carrier reinsertion –pilot-carrier systems

Independent-sideband systems

Vestigial-sideband transmission




5 Frequency modulation

Theory  of frequency and phase modulation

Description of systems

Mathematical representation of FM

Frequency spectrum of the FM wave

Phase modulation

Intersystem comparisons

Noise and frequency modulation

Effects of noise on carrier-noise triangle

Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis

Other forms of interference

Comparison of wideband and narrowband FM

Stereophonic FM multiplex system

Generation of frequency modulation

FM methods

Direct methods

Stabilized reactance modulator-AFC

Indirect method



6 Radio receivers

Receiver types

Tuned radio-frequency (TRF) receiver

Super heterodyne receiver

AM receivers

RF section and characteristics

Frequency changing and tracking

Intermediate frequencies and IF amplifier

Detection and automatic gain control

Communications receivers

Extensions of the super heterodyne principle

Additional circuits

Additional systems

FM recovers

Common circuits-comparison with AM receivers

Amplitude limiting

Basic FM demodulators

Radio detector

FM demodulator comparison

Stereo FM multiplex reception

Single-AND independent-sideband receivers

Demodulation of SSB

Receiver types



7 Transmission lines

Basic principles

Fundamentals of transmission lines

Characteristics impedance

Losses in transmission lines

Standing waves

Quarter –and half-wavelength lines

Reactance properties of transmission lines

The smith chart and its applications

Fundamentals of the smith chart

Problem solution

Transmission –line components

The double stub

Directional couplers


The slotted line


8 Radiation and propagation of waves

Electromagnetic radiation

Fundamentals of electromagnetic waves

Effects of the environment

Propagation of waves

Ground waves

Sky-wave propagation –the ionosphere

Space waves

Tropospheric scatter propagation

Extraterrestrial communications


        9 Antennas

Basic considerations

Electromagnetic radiation

The elementary doublet

Wire radiators in space

Current and voltage distributions

Resonant antennas, radiation patterns, and length calculations

Noresonant antennas

Terms and definitions

Antenna gain and effective radiated power

Radiation measurement and field intensity

Antenna resistance

Bandwidth ,beamwidth ,and polarization

Effects of ground on antennas

Ungrounded antennas

Grounded antennas

Effects of antenna height

Antenna coupling at medium frequencies

General considerations

Selection of feed point

Antenna couplers

Impedance matching with stubs and other devices

Directional high-frequency antennas

Dipole arrays

Folded dipole and applications

Nonresonant antennas-the rhombic

UHF and microwave antennas

Antennas with parabolic reflectors

Horn antennas

Wideband and special-purpose antennas

Folded dipole and applications

Nonresonant antennas-the rhombic

UHF and microwave antennas

Antennas with parabolic reflectors

Horn antennas

Wideband and special-purpose antennas

Folded dipole  

Helical antenna

Log-periodic antennas

Loop antennas

Phased arrays



10 Waveguides, resonators and components

Rectangular waveguides


Reflection of waves from a conducting plane

The parallel-plane waveguide

Rectangular waveguides

Circular and other waveguides

Circular waveguides

Other waveguides

Waveguide coupling, matching and attenuation

Methods of exciting waveguides

Waveguide couplings

Basic accessories

Multiple junctions

Impedance matching and tuning

Cavity resonators


Practical considerations

Auxiliary components

Directional couplers

Isolators and circulators

Mixers, detectors and detector mounts




11 Microwave tube and circuits

Microwave triodes

Frequency limitations of gridded tubes

UHF triodes and circuits

Multicavity klystron


Practical considerations

Reflex klystron


Practical considerations

Types ,performance and applications

Traveling-wave tube

TWT fundamentals

Practical considerations

Types, performance and applications

Other microwave tubes

Crossed-field amplifier

Backward-wave oscillator

Miscellaneous tubes


12 Semiconductor microwave devices and circuits

Passive microwave circuits

Strip line and micro strip circuits

SAW devices

Transistors and integrated circuits

High-frequency limitations

Microwave transistors and integrated circuits

Microwave integrated circuits

Performance and applications of microwave transistors


Varactor and step-recovery diodes and multipliers

Varactor diodes

Step-recovery diodes

Frequency multipliers

Ametric amplifiers

Basic principles

Amplifier circuits

Tunnel diodes and negative-resistance amplifiers

Principles of tunnel diodes

Negative-resistance amplifiers

Tunnel-diode applications

Gunn effect and diodes

Gunn Effect

Gunn diodes and applications

Avalanche effects and diodes

Impact diodes

Trapatt diodes

Performance and applications of avalanche diodes

Other microwave diodes

Pin diodes

Schottky-barrier diode

Backward diodes

Stimulated-emission and associated devices

Fundamentals of masers

Practical masers and their applications

Fundamentals of lasers

CW lasers and their communications applications

Other optoelectronic devices


13 Pulse communications

Information theory

Information in a communications system


Noise in an information-carrying channel

Pulse modulatic


Pulse-width modulation

Pulse-code modulation

Pulse systems




14 Digital communications

Digital technology

Digital fundamentals

The binary number system

Digital electronics

Fundamentals of data communications systems

Characteristics of data transmission circuits

Digital codes

Error detection and correction

Data sets and interconnection requirements

Modern classification

Modern interfacing

Interconnection of data circuits to telephone loops

Network and control considerations

Network organizations

Switching systems

Network protocols



15 Broadband communications systems


Frequency-division multiplex

Time-division multiplex

Short-and medium-haul systems

Coaxial cable

Fiber optic links

Microwave links

Tropospheric scatter links

Long-haul systems

Submarine cables

Satellite communications

Elements of long-distance telephony

Routing codes and signaling systems

Telephone exchanges and routing

Miscellaneous practical aspects

Introduction to traffic engineering


16 Radar systems

Basic principles


Radar performance factors

Pulsed systems

Basic pulsed radar system

Antennas and scanning

Display methods

Pulsed radar systems

Moving-target indication

Radar beacons

Other radar systems

CW Doppler radar

Frequency-modulated CW radar

Phased array radars

Planar array radars


17 Television fundamentals

Requirements and standards

Introduction to television

Television systems and standards

Black-and-white transmission


Beam scanning

Blanking and synchronizing pulses

Black-and-white reception


Common, video and sound circuits

Synchronizing circuits   

Vertical deflection circuits

Horizontal deflection circuits

Color transmission and reception


Color transmission

Color reception



18 Interdiction to fiber optic technology

History of fiber optics

Why fiber optics ?

Introduction to light

Reflection and refraction

Dispersion, diffraction ,absorption ,and scattering

The optical fiber and fiber cables

Fiber characteristics and classification fiber losses

Fiber losses

Fiber optic components and systems

The source


Response time

The optical link

Light wave

The system

Installation, testing, and repair


Fiber optic testing

Power budgeting

Passive components










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