**ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUIT**

**Contents**

**Chapter-1 Electron dynamics and C.R.O**

Introduction

Structure of matter

Concept of charged particle

Unit of charge

Coulomb’s law

Electric field intensity

Motion of charge in constant electric field

Potential

Energy acquired by an electron

Definition of unit eV

Transit time of an electron

Two dimensional motion of an electron

Special case of two dimensional motion

Force in a magnetic field

Direction of force

Magnitude of force

Motion in a magnetic field

Radius of circular path

Period of revolution T

Special case of motion in a magnetic field

Introduction to C.R.O

Cathode ray tube

Electron gun

Electron gun

Deflection system

Fluorescent screen

Types of phosphors

Advantages

Functions of aluminum layer

Glass tube

Base

Basic principle of signal display

Requirements of sweep generator

Block diagram of oscilloscope

CRT

Vertical amplifier

Delay line

Trigger circuit

Time base generator

Horizontal amplifier

Power supply

Graditules

Electrostatic deflection and sensitivity

Electrostatic deflection sensitivity

Magnetic deflection and sensitivity

Magnetic deflection sensitivity

Comparison between deflection methods

Deflection defocusing and its causes

Parallel electric and magnetic fields

Electron directed perpendicular to the fields

Perpendicular electric and magnetic fields

Qualitative explanation of an electron path

Quantitative analysis

Examples with solutions

Examples with solutions from university papers

Review questions

**Chapter-2 Semiconductor physics & junction diode characteristics**

Introduction

The structure of matter

Structure of an atom

Structure of semiconductor materials

Lionization

The energy-band theory

The eV,unit of energy

Classification of materials based on energy band theory

Conductors

Insulators

Semiconductors

Intrinsic semiconductors

Crystal structure of intrinsic semiconductor

Charge carriers in intrinsic semiconductor

Conduction by electrons and holes

Conduction in intrinsic semiconductors

Conductivity of intrinsic semiconductor

Recombination of electrons and holes

Drift current

Mobility of charged particle

General expression for conductivity

Conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor

Effect of temperature on conductivity

Effect of light on semiconductor

Carrier concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor

And Fermi level

Effect of temperature on energy band diagram

Prove that fermilevel lies in the center of forbidden band

For intrinsic semiconductors

The intrinsic concentration

Law of mass action

Extrinsic semiconductors

Types of impurities

n-Type semiconductor

conduction in n-type semiconductor

p-type semiconductor

Conduction in p-type semiconductor

Fermi level in extrinsic semiconductor

Conductivity of extrinsic semiconductor

Conductivity of n type material

Conductivity of p type material

Law of mass action for extrinsic semiconductors

Carrier concentrations in extrinsic semiconductors

Equation of charge neutrality

Diffusion current

Concentration gradient

Diffusion current density

Total current density due to drift and diffusion

Einstein ‘s relationship

Voltage equivalent of temperature

Carrier lifetimes

Diffusion lenth L

Potential variation in a continuously graded semiconductor

Expression for the potential difference

Continuity equation

Concentration independent of distance and E=0

Concentration independent of time and E=0

Concentration varies sinusoidally with and E= 0

Hall effect

Measurement of mobility and conductivity

Introduction to p-n junction

Open circuited step graded p-n junction

Formation of depletion region

Barrier potential

Expression for the barrier potential

Band structure of p-n junction

The p-n junction diode

Biasing of p-n junction diode

Forward biasing of p-n junction diode

Operation of forward biased diode

Effect on the depletion region

Effect of the barrier potential

Reverse biasing of p-n junction diode

Operation of reverse biased diode

Breakdown in reverse biased

The current components in a p-n junction diode

The volt-ampere characteristics of a diode

Forward characteristics of p-n junction diode

Reverse characteristics of p-n junction diode

Complete V-I characteristics of a diode

V-I characteristics of typical Ge and Si diodes

V-I CHARACTERISTICS FROM EQUATION OF DIODE

CUT-IN VOLTAGE

Derivation of V-I characteristics of p-n junction diode

Mathematical expression for the dynamic resistance

Temperature dependence of diode characteristics

Effect of temperature on forward voltage

Effect of temperature on reverse saturation current

Transition capacitance

Derivation of expression for transition capacitance

Varactor diode

Symbol and equivalent circuit

Expression for transition capacitance

Data sheet information of varactor diode

Applications

Diffusion capacitance

Derivation of expression for diffusion capacitance

Breakdown mechanisms in diode

Avalanche breakdown

Zener breakdown

Comparison of breakdown mechanisms

Temperature dependence of breakdown voltages

Zener diode

Characteristics of zener diode

Equivalent circuit of zener diode

Effect of temperature on zener diode

Breakdown mechanisms in zener diode

Zener breakdown

Avalanche breakdown

Comparison of zener diode and p-n junction diode

Application of zener diode

Tunnel diode

Tunneling effect

Energy band structure of tunnel diode

Characteristics of a tunnel diode

Construction

Load line for tunnel diode

Negative resistance oscillator using tunnel diode

Sinusoidal oscillator using tunnel diode

Advantages of tunnel diode

Other applications of tunnel diode

Comparison of tunnel diode and conventional diode

Specifications of tunnel diode

Diode switching times

Light emitting diodes

Basic operation

Construction of LED

LED: voltage and current

Spectral output curves for LED

Radiation pattern of LED

Output characteristics of LED

Data sheet information of LED

Advantages of LED

Disadvantages of LED

Comparison of LED and p-n junction diode

Applications of LED

Liquid crystal display

Dynamic scattering LCDs

Field effects LCD

LCD display driver circuit

Advantages of LCDs

Disadvantages of LCDs

Comparison between LED and LCDs

Photodiode

Photodiode characteristics

Use of photodiode as variable resistance device

Why to be used in reverse biased

Small signal model of photodiode

Sensitivity with position of illumination

Photodiode as a voltage cell

Advantages

Disadvantages

Photodiode applications

Photodiode control circuit

Examples with solutions from university papers

Review questions

**Chapter-3 Rectifiers filters and regulators **

Circuit model of a diode

Rectifiers

The important characteristics of a rectifier circuit

Half wave rectifier

Operation of the circuit

Average DC load current

R.M.S value of load current

D.C power output

A.C power input

Rectifier efficiency

Ripple factor

Load current

Peak inverse voltage

Transformer utilization factor

Voltage regulation

Regulation characteristics

Disadvantages of half wave rectifier circuit

Effect of barrier potential

Full wave rectifier

Operation of the circuit

Maximum load current

Average DC load current

Average DC load voltage

RMS load current

DC power output

AC power input

Rectifiers factor

Ripple factor

Load current

Peak inverse voltage

Transformer utilization factor

Voltage regulation

Comparison of full wave and half wave circuit

Bridge rectifier

Operation of the circuit

Expressions for various parameters

PIV rating of diodes

What happens if input and output terminals are reversed

Advantages of bridge rectifier circuit

Disadvantages of bridge rectifier

Comparison of rectifier circuits

Filter circuits

Capacitor input filter

Operation of the filter

Full wave rectifier with capacitor input filter

Expression for ripple factor

Expression for ripple voltage

Surge current in a capacitor input filter

Limiting the surge current

Advantages and disadvantages of capacitor input filter

Inductor filters or choke filter

Operation of the circuit

Expression for the ripple factor

L-section filter or LC filter

Derivation of ripple factor

The necessity of bleeder resistance R

Multiple L- section filter

Comparisons between capacitor input and LC filter

CLC filter or filter

Ripple factor

Multiple section filter

Block schematic of regulated power supply

Factors affecting the load voltage

Power supply performance parameters

Load regulation

Line regulation or source regulation

Output resistance

Voltage stability factor

Temperature stability factor

Ripple rejection

Basic voltage regulators

Shunt voltage regulator

Series voltage regulator

Comparison of shunt and series regulators

Comparison of rectifier and regulator

Zener Diode as a regulator

Regulation with a varying input voltage

Regulation with a varying load

Circuit protection

Design of zener regulator with varying load and varying input conditions

Examples with solutions from university papers

Review questions

**Chapter-4 transistor and FET characteristics **

Junction transistor

Transistor types

Principles of operation

Unbiased transistor

Biased transistor

Working of N-P-N transistor

Working of P-N-P transistor

Transistor currents

Transistor current components

Transistor as an amplifier

Transistor construction

Detailed study of the currents in a transistor

The transistor alpha

Input and output characteristics in transistor configurations

Common base configuration

Common emitter configuration

Common collector configuration

Comparison of transistor configurations

Relation between alpha and beta

Typical transistor junction voltage values

Transistor as a switch

Field effect transistor

Structure of JFET

Structure of n-channel JEFT and symbol

Structure of p-channel JEFT and symbol

Unbiased JFET

Principle of operation of JFET

JFET characteristics

Drain V-I characteristics for n-channel JFET

Drain V-I characteristics for p-channel JFET

Transfer characteristics for n-channel JFET

Transfer characteristics for p-n channel JFET

Dc load line

JFET parameters

Tran conductance

Input resistance and capacitance

Amplification factor

JFET as a VVR or VDR

Small signal model of JFET

MOSFETs characteristics

Depletion MOSFET

Construction of n-channel MOSFET

Operation characteristics and parameters of n-channel E- MOSFET

P-channel enhancement type MOSFET

Applications of MOSFET as a VLSI device

Comparison of transistors

Comparison of BJT and FET

Comparison of JFET and MOSFET

Comparison of D-MOSFET and E-MOSFET

Introduction to SCR

Construction

Operation of SCR

Two transistor analogy

SCR parameters

Methods of tuning ON SCR

Tum OFF mechanism

Applications of SCR

Introduction to UJT

Construction

Equivalent circuit off ratio

Principle of operation

UJT characteristics

Applications

UJT relaxation oscillator

Operation

Condition for Tum on and Tum off

Examples with solutions from university papers

Review questions

**Chapter-5 Biasing and stabilization **

BJT biasing

DC equivalent model

Criteria for fixing operating point

Typical junction voltages and conditions for operating region

Bias stabilization

Fixed bias circuit

Circuit analysis

Load line analysis

Self bias circuit

Circuit analysis

Stability improvement

Voltage divider biased

Circuit analysis

Simplified circuit of voltage divider bias

Collector to base bias circuit

Circuit analysis

Modified DC bias with voltage feedback

Stability factors

Stability factors for fixed bias circuit stability factor S

Stability factors for collector to base bias circuit

Stability factors for voltage divider bias stability factor S

Techniques compensation

Diode compensation techniques

Thermistor compensation

Sensistor compensation technique

Thermal runway

Thermal resistance

Thermal stability

Examples with solutions

Examples with solutions from university papers

Review questions

**Chapter-6 Amplifiers **

Introduction

Small signal low frequency transistor amplifier circuits

Common emitter amplifier circuit

Common collector amplifier circuit

Common base amplifier circuit

Parameter representation of a transistor

Analysis of single stage transistor amplifier using h-parameters

Guidelines for analysis of a transistor circuit

Analysis of transistor amplifier using simplified hybrid model

Analysis of common collector circuit using simplified hybrid model

Analysis of common base circuit using simplified model

Analysis of common emitter amplifier with collector to base bias

Millar‘s theorem

Analysis of common-emitter amplifier with an emitter resistance

Approximate analysis

Comparison of transistor configurations

Examples with solutions

Examples with solutions from university papers

Review questions

**Chapter-7 Feedback amplifiers **

Introduction

Classification of amplifiers

Voltage amplifier

Current amplifier

Tran conductance amplifier

Tran resistance amplifier

Concept of feedback

Sampling network

Feedback network

Mixer network

Transfer ratio or gain

Classification of feedback amplifiers

General characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers

Transfer gain

Stability of gain

Frequency response and bandwidth

Frequency distortion

Noise and nonlinear distortion

Input and output resistances

Input resistance

Output resistance

Summary of effects of negative feedback on

Amplifier characteristics

Methodology of feedback amplifier analysis

Voltage series feedback

Transistor emitter follower

FET source follower

Current series feedback

Current shunt feedback

Voltage shunt feedback

Examples with solutions

Examples with solutions from university papers

Review questions

**Chapter-8 Oscillators**

Introduction

Basic theory of oscillators

Barkhausen criterion

Classification of oscillators

Based on the output waveform

Based on the circuit components

Based on the range of operating frequency

Based on: whether feedback is used or not ?

R-C phase shift oscillator

RC feedback network

Phase shift oscillator using transistor

Derivation for the frequency of oscillations

Minimum value of hfe for the oscillations

FET phase shift oscillator

Advantages

Disadvantages

Wien bridge oscillator

Derivation for frequency of oscillations

Transistorized wien bridge oscillator

Wien bridge oscillator using FET

Comparison of RC phase shift and wien bridge oscillators

LC oscillators

Operation of LC tank circuit

Basic form of LC oscillator circuit

Hartlely oscillator

Transistorized Hartley oscillator

Derivation of frequency of oscillations

Colpitts oscillator

Transistorized colpitts oscillator

Derivation of frequency of oscillations

Frequency stability of oscillator

Crystal oscillators

Constructional details

Equivalent circuit

Series and parallel resonance

Crystal stability

Pierce crystal oscillator

Miller crystal oscillator

Examples with solutions from university papers

Review questions

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