Syllabus For The Subject Textile Raw Materials

 

Textile Raw Materials

Contents

 Introduction to nonwovens

Definition of nonwovens 

Nonwoven manufacturing processes

Nonwoven properties and applications, including environmental considerations

Development of the nonwovens industry

Future perspectives

 

Part 1 Raw materials for the production of nonwovens

Fibrous material

Natural fibres

Vegetable fibres

Animal fibres

Chemical fibres

Chemical fibres made from natural polymers

Man-made fibres from synthetic polymers

Modification of synthetic fibres

Glass fibres

Silicate fibres

Carbon fibres

Boron fibres

Metal fibers

Reclaimed fibres

Basics

Making textile waste into reclaimed fibres

Pre-treatment

Principle of reclaiming

Subsequent treatment

Reclaimed fiber application

 

Contents

Other raw materials

Cellulose

Granules

General discussion of physical properties

Polyolefin’s

Polyesters

Polyamides

Powders

Polymer powders

Polyacrylonitrile

Further copolymers

Additives

Stabilizers

Pigments

Absorbent polymers

Absorption mechanism

Production process

Suspension process

Suspension polymerization

Solution polymerization

Surface cross linking

In-situ-polymerization

Test methods

Characteristic data of absorbent polymer

Field of application

Summary

Spin finishes

General

Definitions

The requirements placed on spin finishes

Compositions of spin finishes

Man-made fiber production

Processing

Test methods

Test methods

Tests on the spin finishes

Man-made fiber production

Processing

Test methods

Tests on the spin finishing agent

Tests on spin finished fiber material

Spin finishes on nonwovens

General

Nonwoven fabric manufactures and spin finishes

End product and spin finish

Future prospects

Binders

Introduction

Binder fluids

Chemical structure, construction principle monomers

Functional groups, cross linking agents

Binder fluids and the properties of nonwoven fabrics

Focal points of development

Adhesive fibers

Hotmelt adhesive fibers

Appearance

Chemical structure

Mechanism of bonding

Properties

Processes to manufacture nonwovens

Dry-law process

Nonwoven fabrics

Fiber preparation

Production of fibrous webs by carding

Roller carding theory

Plant technology

Web forming

Web drafting

Fiber webs following the aerodynamic procedure

Aim of the procedure

Machines for aerodynamic web forming

Perpendicular laid fibrous high lofts STRUTO and ROTIS

Technologies of production perpendicular laid high lofts

Properties of perpendicular laid high lofts

Extrusion nonwovens

Use of polymers

Generally, on the process technology and equipment to be used

Processes to make spun laid nonwovens and composites

Processes to make fine-fiber spun bonded nonwovens 

Melt blowing process

Electrostatic spun bonding

Processes to make film nonwovens

 

Wet lay method

Principle of the method

Development

Raw materials and fiber preparation

Fiber types

Production of short-staple fibers

Binders

Fiber preparation

Construction of wet lay systems

Web forming

Bonding

Adding the binder fibers

Adding binder dispersions to the pulp

Adding the binder to nonwoven web

Pressing

Web drying

Circulating-air dryers

Tunnel dryers

Radiation drying

Batching

 

Web bonding

Needling process

The principle of needling

Batt feeding

Needling zone

Felt removal

High-performance needling technique

Surface structuring

Paper machine clothing

Needle characteristics

Influence of needling conditions on the needle felt’s

Characteristics

Loop formation processes

System of processes

Stitch-bonding process with base material

Pile stitch-bonding process with base material

Loop stitch-bonding without base material

Loop stitch-bonding with double-sided meshing

Warp knitting

Knitting

Hydro entanglement process

Process development

Fiber and process influence

Bonding lines

Thermal processes

Drying

Convection drying

Contact drying

Radiation drying

Hot-air bonding

Basics

Process technology

Line technology

Heat setting

Thermal calendar bonding

Process technology

Line technology

Ultrasound bonding

Chemical methods

Introduction

Methods for cohesive bonding

Cohesive bonding through thermo plasticity

Cohesive bonding in the case of a dissolved fiber surface

Adhesive bonding methods

Application of liquid binder in excess

Removal of excess liquor    

Metered binder application to one side

Application of powder

Composite materials

Nonwoven composites

Variants of processes

Bonding by means of needle punching

Bonding by means of stitch-bonding

Bonding by means of entangling

Bonding by means of gluing

Nonwovens suitable to make composite materials

Finishing nonwovens

Mechanical finishing

Shrinking

Creation and removal of distortions

Deliberate shrinkage

Compacting and creping

Compacting-the Clupak process

Creping-the Micrex micro crepe process

Glazing, calendaring, pressing

Glazing or rolling calenders

Embossing or goffering calendars

Felt calenders, transfer calenders

Rotary pressing machines

Moulding , stamping

Perforating  slitting , breaking

Perforating

Slitting

Breaking

Splitting, emerizing ,suede finishing , shearing raising

Splitting

Emerizing , suede finishing

Shearing raising

Singeing

Sewing ,quilting and welding

Cover-seaming and quilting

Ultrasonic welding

High-frequency welding

Other mechanical finishing methods

Chemical finishing

Washing

Dyeing

Stock and spin dyeing

Dyeing and bonding

Subsequent dyeing

Different dyeing methods

Cold pad batch dyeing

Continuous dyeing

Printing

Printing of lightweight nonwovens

Printing of heavy nonwovens

Printing of heavy nonwovens (needle-punched nonwoven floor coverings)

Spray printing

Transfer printing

Finishing, softening special effects

Machine facts and possibilities

Stiffening finishes

Finishing of toe and heel caps on footwear

Finishing of nonwovens for roofing felts

Finishing of glass fibre nonwovens for glass fibre composites

Softening

Antistatic finishing

Soil-repellent finishing

Water-repellent and oil-repellent finishing

Hygiene finishing

Flame resistant finishing

Absorbent and water absorbent finishing

Dust-bonding treatment

Coating

Coating methods

Kiss roll coating 

Rotogravure coating

Rotary screen coating

Knife or doctor coating

Extrusion coating

Non-contact coating

Release coating

Coating effects

Non-slip finishing

Mouldabal coating

Self-adhesive coating

Foam coating

Loose lay coating

Micro porous coating

Drainage coating

Heat-sealing coating

Laminating

Wet laminating

Dry laminating

Use of adhesive nonwovens

Examples of laminating

Flocking

New processes and products

Ecology and economy

Peculiarities with regard to ready-making nonwovens

The making up of finished products  

 Concepts and definitions

Products development

Product development for garment textiles

Product development for décor fabrics and home-textiles

Product development for technical textiles

Production preparation

Production

Spreading

Cutting

Joining and assembly

Ironing

Packaging

Mechanization and automation

Part v Characteristics and application of nonwovens

Nonwovens for hygiene

The use of nonwovens in medicine-safety aspects

General requirements

Design and construction

Information to the user

Conclusion

Nonwovens for cleaning and household products

Market situation

Wet and damp-cleaning products

Floor cloths and materials for floor cleaning systems

Durable wiping cloths

Disposable and semi-disposable wiping cloths

Synthetic leather (chamois types)

Dry and damp-cleaning products

Microfiber nonwovens

Polyvinyl alcohol nonwovens

Impregnated cloths

Scouring media

Pan scourers, scouring sponges and pads

Floor pads

 

Nonwovens for home textiles

Nonwovens for upholstery material

Nonwovens for floor coverings

Nonwoven fabrics for wall coverings

Nonwoven fabrics as furnishing fabrics

Tufting substrate

Nonwovens for apparel   

Nonwoven interlinings

Introduction

History of nonwoven interlinings

Functions of nonwoven interlinings

Interlining fabric for shaping and support

Nonwoven interlining for stabilizing and/or stiffening

Nonwoven interlining for providing bulk

Properties of nonwoven interlinings

Functional elements of nonwoven interlinings

Outlook

Nonwovens for protective clothing

Nonwoven support materials for footwear  

Nonwovens for technical applications

 Insulation

Fire, heat, sound

Electrical insulation

Filtration

Dry filtration

General

Functional requirements properties

Surface filters

Depth filters

Liquid filtration

Liquid filters based on nonwovens

Variables in design of liquid filters

Building and construction industry

Geononwovens

Functions and requirements

Selected examples of the uses of nonwovens

Outlook

Bituminous roofing membranes

Introduction

Market overview

The bituminization of polyester nonwovens

The end use requirements of membranes with polyester inlay

Trends and developments

Agriculture

Introduction

Requirements to be met by agricultural nonwovens

Technological processes

Application

Market trends

The motor vehicle industry

The market

The car industry

Required characteristics

Acoustic and thermal insulation-inside the car

Acoustic and thermal insulation-the engine housing

Covering materials-interior of the car

Nonwovens for seat cushioning and laminated nonwovens

Automotive filter fabrics

Nonwovens as backing substrates, microfiber webs and other nonwovens

The aircraft, shipbuilding and railways industries

Outlook

Papermaking fabrics

 

Re-utilization of nonwovens

Waste from the production of nonwovens

Measures to reduce waste

Used waste of nonwoven materials

Disposables

Long-life products

Utilization of nonwoven waste

Mechanical processes to recover fibres

Re-granulation

Production of textile chips and their application

Processing nonwoven waste

 

Regulations to be observed and processes to test raw materials and nonwoven products

General principles

Sampling and statistics

Testing climate

Standards and specifications

 

Testing processes

Raw materials for nonwovens

Fibres

Granulates

Binnders

Nonwovens

Textile-physical tests

Fastness testing

Testing of burning behavior

Testing of the behavior during laundering/dry cleaning

Human ecological tests

Test processes relating to end-use

Hygiene and medical products

Cleaning cloths and household products

Household textiles

Protective clothing

Filter fabrics

Geononwovens

Quality surveillance systems and quality assurance systems

Coming development in nonwovens industry  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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