Syllabus For The Subject Yarn Manufacturing




Chapter-4 Carding theory

Opening of fiber mass

Feed-roller, feed-plate systems

Feed-roller systems

Carding actions

Cylinder –flat action

Swift-worker-stripper action

Web formation and fiber configuration

Cylinder-doffer action

Fiber configuration and mechanism of fiber


Effect of machine variables on fiber configuration

Recycling layer and transfer coefficient

Factors that determine the transfer coefficient, k

The importance of the recycling layer

Blending-leveling action

Evening actions of a card

Step change in feed

General or random irregularities

Periodic irregularities

Fiber breakage

Mechanism of fiber breakage

State of fiber mass and fiber characteristics

Effect residual crease and added lubrication

Effect of machine parameters

Tooth geometry

Roller surface speed/setting/production rate

The taker-in zone

Effect of cylinder-flats and swift-worker




Chapter-5 materials preparation stage III


Principles of doubling

Principles of roller drafting

Ideal drafting

Actual drafting

Effect of input material characteristics

Drafting wave

Observations of floating fiber Motion

Drafting force

Factors influencing drafting wave irregularity

Size of draft

Input count


Fiber straightness, parallelism, fineness

And length

Roller settings

Effect of machine defects

Toller eccentricity

Roller slip

The drawing operations

The draw frame

The gill box

Production equation


The principles of rectilinear combing

Nesmith comb

The cylinder comb

The feed roller/top and bottom

Nipper plates/ top comb

Detaching rollers and delivery rollers

The combing cycle

French comb

Production equation

Degrees of combing

Factors affecting noil extraction

Comber settings

Preparation of input sliver

Conversion of two to sliver

Cutting converters

Stretch-breaking converters

Production equation

Roving production

The speed-frame

Production equation

Rub rovers

Production equation

Environmental processing conditions



Chapter-6 Yarn formation structure and properties

Spinning systems

Ring and traveler spinning systems

Conventional ring spinning

Spinning tensions

Twist insertion and bobbin winding

Spinning end breaks

Compact spinning and sols spinning

Spun-plied spinning

Key points



Open-end spinning systems

OE-end spinning systems

OE rotor spinning

Twist insertion

End breaks during spinning

OE friction spinning

Self-twist spinning systems

Wrap-twist spinning system

Wrap spinning systems

Surface fiber wrapping

Dref-3 friction spinning

Air-jet spinning

Single-and twin-jet systems: murata

Vortex, murata twin spinner, suessen


Filament wrapping

Twistless spinning systems

Continuous felting: periloc process

Adhesive bonding: bobtex process

Core spinning

Doubling principles

Down twisting

Two-for-one twisting

Economic considerations

Yarn structure and properties

Yarn structure

Surface characteristics and geometry

Fiber migration and helix model of yarn structures

Formation of spun yarn structure

Conventional ring-spun yarns

Formation of spun yarn structures

Conventional ring-spun yarns

Mechanism of fiber migration

Compact ring-spun yarns

Formation of rotor yarn structure

Cyclic aggregation

Theory of spun-in fibers in yarns

Formation of friction-spun yarn structures

Formation of wrap-spun yarn structures

Cyclic aggregation

Theory of spun-in fibers in yarns

Formation of friction-spun yarn structures

Formation of wrap-spun yarn structures

Air-jet spun yarns

Hollow-spindle wrap-spun yarn

Structures property relation of yarns


Flexural rigidity

Tensile properties

Effect of twist

Effect of fiber properties and material


Fiber blends

Effect of spinning machine variables

Irregularity parameters

Effect of fiber properties and material


Effect of spinning machine variables

Yarn ideal blend

Hairiness profile

Moisture transport


Quality criteria

Post-process performance criteria



Fabric quality


Chapter-7 The principles of package winding

Basic principles

Winding parameters

Types of winding machines

Drum-winding machines

Wing cam

Grooved drum



Anti-patterning devices

Variation of traverse frequency, N

Variation of drum speed N

Lifting of bobbin to reduce N

Rock-and-roll method

Precision winding machines

Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods

Of winding

Combinational methods for pattern-free winding

Stepped precision winding

Ribbon free random winding

Random-wound cones

Package surface speed

Abrasion at the nose of cones

Traverse motions

Precision open-wound and close-wound pacjages

Theory of close-wound packages

Patterning or ribboning

Hard edges

Cob webbing

Twist displacement

Yarn tensioning and tension control

Characteristics of yarn tensioning devices

Yarn clearing

Knotting and splicing



Yarn waxing



Chapter-8 Yarn tensions and balloon geometry in ring spinning and



Circularly polarized standing waves

Yarn tensions in ring spinning

Yarn formation zone

Winding zone

Yarn tensions in the absence of air drag

Balloon zone

Balloon tension in the absence of air drag

The effect of air drag on yarn tensions

Balloon profiles in the absence of air drag

The balloon profile in the presence of air drag

Determination of ring spinning balloon profiles based on

Sinusoidal waveforms

Effect of balloon control rings

Tensions and balloon control rings

Tensions and balloon profiles in the winding process

Yarn tensions during unwinding from a ring-spinning


Unwinding balloon profiles



Chapter-9 Fancy yarn production

Classification of fancy yarns

Basic principles

Production methods

Plying techniques for the production of fancy yarns

The profile twisting stages

The binding stages

The plied chenille profile

Spinning techniques for the production of fancy yarns

Design and construction of the basic profiles









Combination of profiles

Analysis of fancy yarns





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