Syllabus For The Subject Textile Testing and Quality

TEXTILE TESTING AND QUALITY

Contents

1 Introduction

Reasons for textile testing

Checking raw materials

Monitoring production

Assessing the final product

Investigation of faulty material

Product development and research

Standardization of testing

Variation in the material

Variation caused by the test method

Sampling

Terms used in sampling

Fibre sampling from bulk

Fibre sampling from combed slivers, rovings and yarn

Yarn sampling

Fabric sampling

Measurement

Statistical terms

Determination of number of tests

Use of computers

Types of error

Sources of error

Repeatability and reproducibility

Significant reading

References

 

2 Textiles and moisture

Introduction

Effect of moisture on physical properties

Dimensional

Mechanical

Electrical

Atmospheric moisture

Vapour pressure  

Relative humidity

Standard atmosphere

Measurement of atmospheric moisture

Regain and moisture content

Regain-humidity relations of textiles

Factors affecting the regain

Methods of measuring regain

Correct invoice weight

Control of testing room atmosphere

References

 

3 Fibre dimensions

Fibre fineness

Fineness measurement

Gravimetric

Fibre fineness by projection microscope

Fibre fineness by the airflow method

Cotton fineness by airflow

Cotton maturity

IIC/Shirley fineness and maturity tester

Optical fibre diameter analyser

Light-scattering methods

Vibration method

Wool quality

Fibre length

Mean length

Methods of measurement: direct methods

WIRA fibre length machine

Methods of measurement: tuft methods

Cotton grading

Comb sorter

The clamped tuft method

Fibro graph

WIRA fibre diagram machine

Almeter

High-volume instruments

General reading

References

 

4 Yarn tests

Linear density

Direct system

Indirect system

Folded yarns

Measuring linear density

Linear density from a fabric sample

Twist

Level of twist

Measuring twist

Yarn evenness

Visual examination

Cut and weigh methods

Uster evenness tester

Zweigle G565

Hairiness

Shirley yarn hairiness tester

Zweigle G565

Uster tester 3 hairiness tester

Zweigle G565

Uster tester 3 hairiness meter attachment

Yarn bulk

Textured filament yarns

Friction coil friction

Measuring yarn friction

References

 

5. Strength and elongation tests

Introduction

Definitions

Units

Breaking strength; tensile strength

Stress

Specific stress

Tenacity

Breaking length

Elongation

Strain

Extension percentage

Gauge length

Force elongation curve

Yield point

Modulus

Work of rupture

Time dependence

Elastic recovery

Factors affecting tensile testing

Type of testing machine

Specimen length

Rate of loading and time to break

Effect of humidity and temperature

Previous history of the specimen

Clamping problems

Fibre strength

Single fibre strength

Bundle strength

Yarn strength

Yarn strength: single strand method

Yarn strength : skein method

Fabric strength

Strip strength

Grab test

Tear tests

Measuring tearing strength

Single rip tear test

Wing rip tear test

Elmendorf tear tester

Bursting strength

Diaphragm bursting test

Ball bursting strength

Stretch and recovery properties

Seam strength

Seam slippage

Seam slippage tests

Fixed load method

Upholstery seam slippage

General reading

References

 

6 Dimensional stability

Introduction

Hygral expansion

Relaxation shrinkage

Swelling shrinkage

Felting shrinkage

Weft knitted wool fabrics

Methods of measuring dimensional stability

Marking out samples

WIRA steaming cylinder

Relaxation shrinkage

Washable wool

Washable programmes

Dimensional stability to dry cleaning

Dimensional stability to dry heat

General reading

References

 

7 Serviceability

Introduction

Snagging

Mace snagging test

Pilling

Pilling tests

Abrasion resistance

Factors affecting abrasion resistance

Abrasion tests

Wearer trials

Advantages of wearer trials

Advantages of laboratory tests

Disadvantages of laboratory tests

Design of trials

References

 

8 Comfort

Introduction

Thermal comfort

Heat balance

Heat loss

Air permeability

Measurement of thermal conductivity

Measurement of water vapour permeability

Moisture transport

Wetting

Wicking

Longitudinal wicking

Wicking test

Transverse wicking

Sensorial comfort

Water absorption

Static immersion

Wettability of textile fabrics

Sinking time

Water repellency

Spray rating

Bundesmann water repellency test

WIRA shower test

Credit rain simulation tester

Hydrostatic head

References

 

 

 9 Colour fastness testing

Introduction

Sample preparation

Outline of colour fastness tests

Colour fastness to other agents

References

 

10 Objective evaluation of fabric handle

Handle

Bending length

Shirley stiffness test

Hanging loop method

Drape

Crease recovery

Fabric thickness

Shear

Bias extension

Formability

Fabric friction

Kawabata system

Subjective assessment of fabric handle

Objective evaluation of fabric handle

FAST: fabric assurance by simple testing

Compression

Bending length

Extensibility

Dimensional stability

General reading

References

 

11 Quality

Definitions of quality

Types of quality

Quality control

Quality assurance

ISO 9000

Enquiries and orders

Purchased material or services

Inspection and testing

Calibration of test equipment

Organizational structure

Quality audit

Training

Textile product iabelling

Fibre content

Flammability iabels

Origin markings

Care iabelling

References

 

 

 

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