Syllabus For The Subject Advanced Short Staple Spinning







1 Process control in mixing

Significance of process control in mixing

Fiber quality index

Essential properties of fiber

Fiber length

Fiber strength and elongation

Fiber fineness and maturity

Trash color


Properties of cotton: global scenario

Process sequence: short staple spinning

Bale packing and dimensions

Bale management

Selection of cottons for mixing

Points to follow for effective bale management

Bale lay down planning

Procedure for bale lay down planning

Linear programming technique for cotton mixing

Formulation of LPT model

LPT in the optimization of cotton mixing

Cotton property evaluation using HVI and AFIS

High volume instruments

Modules of HVI

Advanced fiber information system

Cotton stickiness

Effect of stickiness on various processes



Effect of stickiness on weaving

Stickiness detection and measurement

Contamination and its impact

Effects of contamination

Measures to reduce contamination

Contamination cleaning methods

Hand picking method

Blow room equipped with contamination detection

And ejecting units

Soft waste addition in mixing



2 Process control in blow room

Significance of blow room process

Intensity of fiber opening

Cleaning efficiency

Determination of cleaning efficiency

Points considered for attaining better cleaning efficiency

Neps in blow room

Lint loss

Blending homogeneity

Fiber rupture and its measurement


Classification of dust

Problems associated with microdust

Microdust extraction

Lap uniformity

Technological developments in blow room machinery

Automatic bale openers

Openers and cleaners

Blenders or mixers

Contamination sorting

Chute feed system and its control mechanism

Process parameters in blow room

Defects associated with the blow room process

Lap licking

Conical lap

Soft lap

Soft lap

Curly cotton

Nep formation in blow room

High lap C.V% or tuft size variation

Other defects

Work practices in blow room

General considerations in blow room process



3 Process control in carding

Significance of the carding process

Neps in carding

Nep monitoring and control

Influence of licker-in zone on the carding process


Licker-in: opening and cleaning

Quality of blow room lap

Influence of the carding zone on the carding process



Precarding and postcarding segments

Doffer zone

Fiber transfer efficiency

Sliver formation

Wire geometry in licker-in, cylinder,flats,and doffer

Point density

Wire point profile

Wire angle

Tooth angle

Tooth depth

Basic maintenance of card wire



Stationary flats

Auto leveler in carding

Benefits associated with autoleveler

Process parameters in carding

Defects associated with the carding process

Patchy web


Sagging web

Higher card waste

Low nep removal efficiency

Higher unevenness of silver

Higher sliver breaks

Ambient conditions

Cleaning efficiency and lint loss%

Control of waste

Control of waste

Control of nonusable waste

Control of soft waste

Automatic waste evaluation system

Productivity and quality for different end uses

Points for effective control of quality in the carding process

Technological developments in carding

Developments in rieter card: C70

Developments in trutzschlerTC11

Developments in marzoli C701



4 Process control in drawing

Significance of the drawing process

Fundamentals of drafting system

Fiber control in roller drafting


Influence of draw frame machine elements on process


Drafting zone

Bottom drafting rollers

Top rollers

Top roller weighing system

Web condenser

Coiler trumpet

Roller setting

Top roller maintenance

Measurement of shore hardness

Berklization of top roller

Testing of top roller concentricity and surface roughness

Draw frame: speeds and draft distribution

Count C.V% and irregularity U%

Causes and control of U% in draw frame

Auto leveler

Defects associated with draw frame process

Roller lapping

Sliver chocking in trumpet

Creel breakage

More sliver breakages

Improper sliver hank


Process parameters in draw frame

Work practices

Technological developments in draw frame

Rieter draw frame

Trutizscler draw frame



5 Process control in comber and its preparatory

Significance of combing process

Lap preparation

Lap preparation methods

Precomber draft

Degree of doubling

Factors influencing the combing process

Fiber properties

Lap preparation

Machine factors

Setting points in comber machine

Feed setting

Type of feed

Amount of feed per nip

Detachment setting

Point density and wire angle of comb

Top comb parameters


Nips per minute



Noil removal

Combing efficiency

Degrees of combing

Nep removal in combing

Hook straightening in comber        

Sliver uniformity

Control of feed lap variation

Defects and remedies

Inadequate removal of short fibers and neps

Short-term unevenness

Hank variations

Higher sliver breaks at coiler

Coiler chocking

Web breakages at drafting zone

Breakages in comber heads

Excessive lap licking and splitting

Technological developments in comber and its preparatory

Rieter comber and lap former

Trutzschler comber

Marzoli comber

Toyota comber

Work practices



6 Process control in speed frame

Significance of speed frame

Tasks of speed frame

Importance of machine components in speed frame

Creel zone

Drafting system

Bottom rollers

Top rollers

Aprons, cradle, condensers, and spacer

Top arm loading

Flyer and spindle

Daft distribution


Bobbin formation

Tapper formation

Quality control of roving


Procedure to determine ratching% in roving

Roving strength

Count C.V%


Defects in roving

Higher roving breakages

Soft bobbins


Hard bobbins

Oazed-out bobbins

High roving count C.V%

Roller lapping


Technological developments in speed frame



7 Process control in ring spinning

Significance of ring spinning process

Ring spinning machine

Influence of ring spinning machine components on spinning process


Roving guide

Drafting elements

Bottom rollers

Top roller cots

Top arm loading

Spacer-apron spacing


Balloon control ring

Ring and traveler

Load on ring and traveler

Shape of the traveler

Traveler friction

Traveler mass

Traveler speed and yarn count

Traveler and spinning tension

Traveler clearer

Prerequisites for smooth and stable running

Of traveler on ring

Traveler and spinning geometry

Traveler fly

Impact of ring and traveler on yarn quality

Roller setting

Top roller overhang

Spinning geometry

Spindle and its drive

Spindle speed

Ring spinning empties or tubes

End breakage rate

Developments in rieter spinning machines

Developments in Toyota spinning machines

Developments in zinser spinning machines

 Compact spinning system



8 Process control in winding

Significance of the winding process

Objectives of winding process

Types of wound packages

Cross-winding technology: terminologies

Demands of cone winding process

Quality requirements of ring bobbins for winding operation

Bobbin rejection in automatic winding machine  

Acceptable deterioration in quality from ring bobbin to cone

Factors influencing process efficiency of automatic winding machine

Winding speed

Slough-off in high-speed unwinding zone

Yarn tension  

Tension control in unwinding zone

Tension control in winding zone

Package density of cone

Yarn clearing

Yarn faults

Yarn cleaners

Yarn cleaner setting in automatic winding machine


Factors influencing properties of spliced yarn

Package defects in winding

Missing tail end

Cut cone

Yarn entanglement

Hard waste/bunch

Stitch/jail formation

Patterning/ribbon formation

Sloughing off

Wrinkle/cauliflowers-shaped cone

Hard/soft cones

Double end

Missing end/cob/web

Drum lap

Ring in cone

Oily/greasy stains on cone

Determination of shade variation in yarn package

Control of hard waste

Practices to be adopted to control hard waste

Wrong work practices in the winding department

Poor work practices in manual winding process

Poor work practices in automatic winding process

Yarn conditioning

Benefits of yarn conditioning

Technological developments in winding machine

Antirbboning or ribbon breaker mechanism

Hairiness reduction

Tension control



9. Process control in rotor spinning

Significance of rotor spinning

Tasks of rotor spinning machine

Raw material selection

Fiber strength

Fiber fineness

Fiber friction

Sliver preparation

Influence of machine components on rotor spinning process

Opening roller

Opening roller: wire profile

Opening roller: speed


Rotor diameter

Rotor groove

Rotor speed

Slide wall angle

Navel or withdrawal tube or draw-off nozzle

Winding zone

Tension zone

Tension control

Cradle pressure

Stop motion

Ribbon breaker



Doubling effect

Winding angle


End breakage in rotor spinning

Relative humidity in rotor spinning process

Defects associated with rotor spinning process

Neppy and uneven yarn




10 Energy management in the spinning mill

Significance of energy management in the spinning mill

Manufacturing cost of yarn in spinning mill

Energy distribution in ring spinning process

Calculation of energy consumption of ring frame machines

Energy management programs

Energy conservation in the spinning mill

Spinning preparatory process

High-speed carding machine

Installation of electronic roving end-break stop-motion

Detectors instead of pneumatic systems

Ring frame

Energy conservation in postspinning process

Intermittent modes of the movement of empty bobbin

Conveyors in autoconer/cone winding machines

Two for one twister

Yarn conditioning process

Energy conservation in humidification system

Replacement of aluminum fan impellers with

High-efficiency FRP fan impellers in humidification

Plants and cooling tower fans

Installation of variable frequency drive on

Humidification system fan motors for flow control

Other areas in humidification system

Overhead traveling cleaners

Attachment of control systems in OHTC

Provision of energy-efficient fan instead of blower fan


Electrical distribution network

Cable losses

Power factor


Replacement of T-12 tubes with T-8 tubes

Replace magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts

Optimization of lighting in production

And nonproduction areas

Optimum use of natural sunlight

Compressed air system

Energy demand control

Calculating the load factor

Motor maintenance

Energy-efficient motors

Rewinding of motors

Motor burnouts

Power factor correction

Minimizing voltage unbalances



11 Humidification and ventilation management

Importance of maintaining humidity in spinning process

Humidification: terms

Humidity and working conditions

Humidity and yarn properties

Humidity and static electricity

Humidity and hygiene

Humidity and human comfort

Humidity and electronic components

Humidity and dust control

Moisture management in ginning

Humidification management in spinning mill

Air washer

Determination of department heat load

Solar heat gain through insulated roof

Heat dissipation from the machines

Heat of air

Heat load from lighting

Occupancy heat load

Determination of supply air quantity

Water quality

Types of humidifiers

Stream humidification

Atomizing humidifiers

Air washer humidifiers

Conventional humidification system



Modern humidification system





12 Pollution management in spinning mill

Significance of pollution in spinning mill

Types of pollutant in the spinning process

Cotton dust

Classification of cotton dust

Types of dust

Generation of the cotton dust during manufacturing

Health hazards associated with cotton dust exposure


Permissible exposure limits for cotton dust

For different work areas

Medical monitoring

Environmental exposure monitoring

Vertical elutriator

Dust control measures

Preventive measures to be followed during manufacturing process

General practices

Work practices during material handling and cleaning

Pollution in cotton cultivation and processing

Impact of chemical used in cotton cultivation

Cotton usage

Organic cotton

Necessity to shift to organic production

Comparison of conventional cotton and organic cotton


Limitations of organic cotton production

Significance of noise pollution 

Noise: terminologies

Ambient air quality standards in terms of noise

Perceived change in decibel level

Noise in the textile industry

Method of noise evaluation

Effect of noise pollution

Suggestion to eradicate noise pollution in textile industry

Preventive measures to control noise pollution



13 Process management tools

Significance of process management

Process management in spinning mill

Process management tools


Application of 5S in spinning mill

Bale godown

Preparatory department

Spinning department

Maintenance department

Advantages of 5S

Implementation program of 5S

5S radar chart

Total productive maintenance system

TPM: definition

Objectives of TPM

TQM versus TPM

Different modules in the implementation of TPM

In a spinning mill

Preparatory module

Introduction module

Implementation module

Eight pillars of TPM

Lean manufacturing: definition

Principle of lean manufacturing

Goals of lean manufacturing

Lean concepts in the spinning mills

Implementation of lean concept

Lean manufacturing tools

Advantages of lean manufacturing


14 productivity waste management and material handling

Productivity in the spinning process

Factors influencing productivity of a spinning mill

Productivity measurement

Production per spindle

Labor productivity

Operatives per 1000 spindles

Measures to improve productivity in the spinning mill \

Yarn realization

Measures to improve yarn realization

Waste management in spinning mill

Waste investigation

Recording of waste

Waste reduction and control

Invisible loss

Material handling

Principles of material handling

Factors governing selection of material handling equipment

Material handling equipment in spinning mills

Bale godown

Mixing and blow room department

Trolleys used in carding, drawing, and comber

Roving bobbin trolley

Winding and packing

Automation in roving bobbin transportation

Automation in ring bobbin transportation



15 Case studies

Mixing-related problems

Higher needle breakage in knitting

Barre effect in the woven fabric

Poor fabric appearance due to black spots in the knitted fabric

Higher sliver breakage in carding

Higher roller lapping in spinning preparatory process

Higher polypropylene contamination in yarn

Blow room-related problems

Higher sliver breakages in card sliver

Higher end breakage in rotor groove

Holes in the blow room lap

High short thick places in yarn

Carding-related problems

Higher yarn imperfections

Higher creel breakages in drawing

Draw frame-related problems

Poor fabric appearance

High yarn count C.V%


High yarn unevenness

Speed frame

High level of thin places in the yarn

Ring frame

Higher hard waste in winding

Shade variation in cone

Higher yarn breakages in weaving

Barre in fabric










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