Syllabus For The Subject Thermodynamics

Chapter 1 Fundamental Concepts and Definitions 1


1.1 Introduction and definition of thermodynamics 1


1.2 Dimensions and units 1


1.3 Concept of continuum 3


1.4 Systems, surroundings and universe 4


1.5 Properties and state 5


1.6 Thermodynamic path, process and cycle 5


1.7 Thermodynamic equilibrium 6


1.8 Reversibility and irreversibility 7


1.9 Quasi-static process 7


1.10 Some thermodynamic properties 8


1.11 Energy and its forms 11


1.12 Heat and work 13


1.13 Gas laws 14


1.14 Ideal gas 14


1.15 Dalton’s law, Amagat’s law and property of mixture of gases 15


1.16 Real gas 17


1.17 Vander Waals and other equations of state for real gas 20


Examples 22


Exercises 38


Chapter 2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 40


2.1 Introduction 40


2.2 Principle of temperature measurement and Zeroth law of thermodynamics 40


2.3 Temperature scales 42


2.4 Temperature measurement 43


Examples 46


Exercises 49


Chapter 3 First Law of Thermodynamics 50


3.1 Introduction 50


3.2 Thermodynamic processes and calculation of work 50


3.3 Non-flow work and flow work 57


3.4 First law of thermodynamics 59


3.5 Internal energy and enthalpy 62


3.6 Specific heats and their relation with internal energy and enthalpy 63


3.7 First law of thermodynamics applied to open systems 64


3.8 Steady flow systems and their analysis 65


3.9 First law applied to engineering systems 68


3.10 Unsteady flow systems and their analysis 73


3.11 Limitations of first law of thermodynamics 75


Examples 76


Exercises 94


Chapter 4 Second Law of Thermodynamics 97


4.1 Introduction 97


4.2 Heat reservoir 97


4.3 Heat engine 97


4.4 Heat pump and refrigerator 99


4.5 Statements for IInd law of thermodynamics 100


4.6 Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements of IInd law of


thermodynamics 101


4.7 Reversible and irreversible processes 103


4.8 Carnot cycle and Carnot engine 105


4.9 Carnot theorem and its corollaries 108


4.10 Thermodynamic temperature scale 109


Examples 113


Exercises 128


Chapter 5 Entropy 131


5.1 Introduction 131


5.2 Clausius inequality 131


5.3 Entropy – A property of system 134


5.4 Principle of entropy increase 138


5.5 Entropy change during different thermodynamic processes 140


5.6 Entropy and its relevance 144


5.7 Thermodynamic property relationship 144


5.8 Third law of thermodynamics 146


Examples 146


Exercises 161


Chapter 6 Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Substance 164


6.1 Introduction 164


6.2 Properties and important definitions 164


6.3 Phase transformation process 166


6.4 Graphical representation of pressure, volume and temperature 167


6.5 Thermodynamic relations involving entropy 170


6.6 Properties of steam 172


6.7 Steam tables and mollier diagram 175


6.8 Dryness fraction measurement 177


Examples 181


Exercises 199


(x)


Chapter 7 Availability and General Thermodynamic Relations 202


7.1 Introduction 202


7.2 Availability or exergy 203


7.3 Availability associated with heat and work 207


7.4 Effectiveness or second law efficiency 210


7.5 Second law analysis of steady flow systems 211


7.6 General thermodynamic relations 213


Examples 230


Exercises 248


Chapter 8 Vapour Power Cycles 250


8.1 Introduction 250


8.2 Performance parameters 250


8.3 Carnot vapour power cycle 251


8.4 Rankine cycle 253


8.5 Desired thermodynamic properties of working fluid 255


8.6 Parametric analysis for performance improvement in Rankine cycle 256


8.7 Reheat cycle 258


8.8 Regenerative cycle 260


8.9 Binary vapour cycle 268


8.10 Combined Cycle 270


8.11 Combined Heat and Power 272


8.12 Different steam turbine arrangements 273


Examples 273


Exercises 327


Chapter 9 Gas Power Cycles 330


9.1 Introduction 330


9.2 Air-standard cycles 330


9.3 Brayton cycle 340


9.4 Regenerative gas turbine cycle 345


9.5 Reheat gas turbine cycle 347


9.6 Gas turbine cycle with intercooling 351


9.7 Gas turbine cycle with reheat and regeneration 353


9.8 Gas turbine cycle with reheat and intercooling 354


9.9 Gas turbine cycle with regeneration, reheat and intercooling 355


9.10 Gas turbine irreversibilites and losses 355


9.11 Compressor and turbine efficiencies 358


9.12 Ericsson cycle 362


9.13 Stirling cycle 364


Examples 365


Exercises 396


Chapter 10 Fuel and Combustion 399


10.1 Introduction 399


10.2 Types of fuels 401


10.3 Calorific value of fuel 402


(xi)


10.4 Bomb calorimeter 402


10.5 Gas calorimeter 404


10.6 Combustion of fuel 404


10.7 Combustion analysis 407


10.8 Determination of air requirement 409


10.9 Flue gas analysis 411


10.10 Fuel cells 413


Examples 413


Exercises 434


Chapter 11 Boilers and Boiler Calculations 436


11.1 Introduction 436


11.2 Types of boilers 437


11.3 Requirements of a good boiler 438


11.4 Fire tube and water tube boilers 438


11.5 Simple vertical boiler 442


11.6 Cochran boiler 443


11.7 Lancashire boiler 444


11.8 Cornish boiler 446


11.9 Locomotive boilers 446


11.10 Nestler boilers 448


11.11 Babcock and Wilcox boiler 448


11.12 Stirling boiler 449


11.13 High pressure boiler 450


11.14 Benson boiler 451


11.15 Loeffler boiler 452


11.16 Velox boiler 452


11.17 La Mont boiler 453


11.18 Fluidized bed boiler 454


11.19 Waste heat boiler 456


11.20 Boiler mountings and accessories 459


11.21 Boiler draught 467


11.22 Natural draught 467


11.23 Artificial draught 474


11.24 Equivalent evaporation 477


11.25 Boiler efficiency 478


11.26 Heat balance on boiler 478


11.27 Boiler trial 481


Examples 481


Exercises 502


Chapter 12 Steam Engine 506


12.1 Introduction 506


12.2 Classification of steam engines 506


12.3 Working of steam engine 508


12.4 Thermodynamic cycle 515


12.5 Indicator diagram 518


(xii)


12.6 Saturation curve and missing quantity 519


12.7 Heat balance and other performance parameters 521


12.8 Governing of simple steam engines 525


12.9 Compound steam engine 527


12.10 Methods of compounding 527


12.11 Indicator diagram for compound steam engine 530


12.12 Calculations for compound steam engines 531


12.13 Governing of compound steam engine 533


12.14 Uniflow engine 535


Examples 536


Exercises 561


Chapter 13 Nozzles 564


13.1 Introduction 564


13.2 One dimensional steady flow in nozzles 565


13.3 Choked flow 576


13.4 Off design operation of nozzle 577


13.5 Effect of friction on nozzle 580


13.6 Supersaturation phenomenon in steam nozzles 582


13.7 Steam injector 584


Examples 584


Exercises 608


Chapter 14 Steam Turbines 611


14.1 Introduction 611


14.2 Working of steam turbine 612


14.3 Classification of steam turbines 614


14.4 Impulse turbine 619


14.5 Velocity diagram and calculations for impulse turbines 623


14.6 Impulse turbine blade height 632


14.7 Calculations for compounded impulse turbine 634


14.8 Reaction turbines 637


14.9 Losses in steam turbines 644


14.10 Reheat factor 646


14.11 Steam turbine control 649


14.12 Governing of steam turbines 650


14.13 Difference between throttle governing and nozzle control governing 654


14.14 Difference between impulse and reaction turbines 654


Examples 655


Exercises 680


Chapter 15 Steam Condensor 684


15.1 Introduction 684


15.2 Classification of Condenser 685


15.3 Air Leakage 691


15.4 Condenser Performance Measurement 692


15.5 Cooling Tower 693


Examples 695


Exercises 704


(xiii)


Chapter 16 Reciprocating and Rotary Compressor 706


16.1 Introduction 706


16.2 Reciprocating compressors 708


16.3 Thermodynamic analysis 709


16.4 Actual indicator diagram 715


16.5 Multistage compression 716


16.6 Control of reciprocating compressors 722


16.7 Reciprocating air motor 722


16.8 Rotary compressors 723


16.9 Centrifugal compressors 728


16.10 Axial flow compressors 732


16.11 Surging and choking 733


16.12 Stalling 735


16.13 Centrifugal compressor characteristics 736


16.14 Axial flow compressor characteristics 739


16.15 Comparative study of compressors 740


Examples 742


Exercises 767


Chapter 17 Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines 770


17.1 Introduction 770


17.2 Classification of IC engines 771


17.3 IC Engine terminology 772


17.4 4-Stroke SI Engine 773


17.5 2-Stroke SI Engine 776


17.6 4-Stroke CI Engine 776


17.7 2-Stroke CI Engine 777


17.8 Thermodynamic cycles in IC engines 778


17.9 Indicator diagram and power measurement 780


17.10 Combustion in SI engine 783


17.11 Combustion in CI engines 785


17.12 IC engine fuels 786


17.13 Morse test 787


17.14 Comparative study of IC engines 788


Examples 790


Exercises 802


Chapter 18 Introduction to Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 805


18.1 Introduction 805


18.2 Performance parameters 807


18.3 Unit of refrigeration 808


18.4 Carnot refrigeration cycles 808


18.5 Air refrigeration cycles 809


18.6 Vapour compression cycles 813


18.7 Multistage vapour compression cycle 819


18.8 Absorption refrigeration cycle 820


(xiv)


18.9 Modified absorption refrigeration cycle 822


18.10 Heat pump systems 823


18.11 Refrigerants 824


18.12 Desired properties of refrigerants 827


18.13 Psychrometry 827


18.14 Air conditioning systems 835


18.15 Comparison of different refrigeration methods 837


Examples 838


Exercises 855


Chapter 19 Jet Propulsion and Rocket Engines 858


19.1 Introduction 858


19.2 Principle of jet propulsion 858


19.3 Classification of jet propulsion engines 860


19.4 Performance of jet propulsion engines 861


19.5 Turbojet engine 863


19.6 Turbofan engine 867


19.7 Turboprop engine 868


19.8 Turbojet engine with afterburner 868


19.9 Ramjet engine 869


19.10 Pulse jet engine 870


19.11 Principle of rocket propulsion 871


19.12 Rocket engine 872


19.13 Solid propellant rocket engines 872


19.14 Liquid propellant rocket engines 873


Examples 873


Exercises 891

DMCA.com Protection Status