## Syllabus For The Subject Heat and Mass Transfer

### HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

1) Basic Concept

1.1. Heat Transfer-General Aspects

1.1.1. Heat

1.1.2. Important of Heat transfer

1.1.3. Thermodynamics

1.1.3.1. Definition

1.1.3.2. Thermodynamic system

1.1.3.3. Macroscopic and microscopic points of view

1.1.3.4. Pure substance

1.1.3.5. Thermodynamic equilibrium

1.1.3.6. Properties of System

1.1.3.7. State

1.1.3.8. Process

1.1.3.9 Cycle

1.1.3.10. Point functions

1.1.3.11. Path function

1.1.3.12. Temperature

1.1.3.13. Pressure

1.1.3.14. Energy

1.1.3.15. Work

1.1.3.16. Heat

1.1.3.17. Comparison of work and heat

1.1.4. Difference between thermodynamics and heat transfer

1.1.5. Basic laws governing heat transfer

1.1.6. Modes of heat transfer

1.2. Heat Transfer by Conduction

1.2.1. Fourier’s law of heat conduction

1.2.2. Thermal conductivity of material

1.2.3. Thermal resistance (R8)

1.3. Heat Transfer by Convection

PART I :HEAT TRANSFER BY “CONDUCTION”

2.1. Introduction

2.2. General Heat Conduction Equation in Cartesian Coordinates

2.3. General Heat Conduction Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates

2.4. General Heat Conduction Equation in Spherical Coordinates

2.5. Heat Conduction through Plane and Composite Walls

2.5.1. Heat conduction through a plane wall

2.5.2. Heat conduction through a composite wall

2.5.3. The overall heat transfer coefficient

2.6. Heat Conduction through Hollow and Composite Cylinder

2.6.1. Heat conduction through a hollow cylinder

2.6.1.1. Logarithmic mean area for the hollow cylinder

2.6.2. Heat conduction through a composite cylinder

2.7. Heat Conduction through Hollow and Composite spheres

2.7.1. Heat conduction through a hollow sphere

2.7.1.1. Logarithmic mean area for the a hollow sphere

2.7.2. Heat condition through a composite sphere

2.8. Critical Thickness of Insulation

2.8.1. Insulation-General aspects

2.8.2. Critical thickness of insulation

2.9. Heat conduction with Internal heat Generation

2.9.1. Plan wall with uniform heat generation

2.9.2. Dielectric Heating

2.9.3. Cylinder with uniform heat generation

2.9.4. Heat transfer through the piston crown

2.9.5. Heat conduction with heat generation in the nuclear cylindrical fuel rod

2.9.6. Sphere with uniform heat generation

2.10. Heat Transfer from Extended Surface (Fins)

2.10.1. Introduction

2.10.2. Heat flow through Rectangular fin

2.10.2.1. Heat dissipation from an infinitely long tin

2.10.2.2. Heat dissipation from a fin insulated at the tip

2.10.2.3. Heat dissipation from a fin losing heat at the tip

2.10.2.4. Efficiency and effectiveness of fin

2.10.2.5. Design of rectangular fins

2.10.3. Heat flow through straight triangular fin

2.10.4. Estimation of error in temperature measurement in a thermometer well

2.10.5. Heat transfer from a bar connected to the two heat sources at different

3) CONDUCTION-STEADY –STATE TWO DIMENTIONS AND THREE DIMENTIONS

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Two Dimensional Steady State Conduction

3.2.1. Analytical method

3.2.1.1. Two-dimensional steady state heat conduction in rectangular plates

3.2.1.2. Two-dimensional steady state heat conduction in semi-infinite plates

3.2.2. Graphical method

3.2.3. Analogical method

3.2.4 Numerical methods

4.1 Introduction

4.2. Heat conduction in solids having infinite Thermal Conductivity (Negligible Internal Resistance)

4.3. Time constant and Response of Temperature Measuring Instruments

4.4. Transient Heat Conduction in solids with Finite Conduction and Convective Resistance

4.5. Transient Heat Conduction in Semi-infinite Solids(h or b )

4.6. System with Periodic Variation of Surface Temperature

4.7. Transient Conduction with Given Temperature Distribution, Typical Examples

PART II : HEAT TRANSFER BY “CONVECTION”

5) INTRODUCTION TO HYDRODYNAMICS

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Ideal and Real Fluids

5.3. Viscosity

5.4. Continuity Equation in Cartesian Coordinates

5.5. Equation of Continuity in a Cartesian Coordinates

5.6. Velocity Potential and Stream Functions

5.6.1. Velocity potential

5.6.2. Stream function

5.6.3. Laminar and turbulent flows

6) DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Dimensions

6.3. Dimensional Homogeneity

6.4. Methods of Dimensions Analysis

6.4.1. Rayleigh’s Methods

6.4.2. Buckingham’s –Methods/Theorems

6.5. Dimensional Analysis Applied to Natural or Free Convection

6.6. Dimensions Analysis Applied to Natural or Free Convection

6.7. Advantage and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis

6.8. Dimensional Numbers and their Physical Significance

6.9. Characteristics Length or Equivalent Diameter

6.10. Model Studies and Similitude

6.10.1. Model and Similitude

6.10.2. Similitude

7) FORCED CONVECTION

7.1. Laminar Flow over Flat Plates,

7.1.1. Introduction to boundary Layer

7.1.1.1. Boundary Layer Definition and Characteristics

7.1.2. Momentum equation for hydrogen

7.1.3. Belasis (exact) solution for laminar boundary

7.1.4. Van-Karman integral momentum equation (Approximate hydro-dynamic boundary layer analysis)

7.1.5. Thermal boundary Layer

7.1.6. Energy equation of thermal boundary layer over a flat plate

7.1.7. Integral energy equation (Approximate solution of energy equation)

7.2. Laminar Tube Flow

7.2.1. Development of boundary layer

7.2.2. Velocity distribution

7.2.3. Temperature distribution

7.3. Introduction

7.3.1. Turbulent boundary layer

7.3.2. Total drag due to laminar and turbulent layers

7.3.3. Reynolds analog

7.4. Turbulent Tube Flow

7.5. Empirical Correlations

7.5.1. Laminar flow over flat plates and walls

7.5.2. Laminar flow inside tubes

7.5.3. Turbulent flow over flat plate

7.5.4. Turbulent flow in tubes

7.5.5. Turbulent flow over cylinders

7.5.6. Turbulent flow over spheres

7.5.7. Flow across bluff objects

7.5.8. Flow through packed beds

7.5.9. Flow across a bank of tubes

7.5.10. Liquid metal heat transfer

8) FREE CONVECTION

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Characteristics Parameters in Free Convection

8.3. Momentum and Energy Equation for Laminar Free Convection Heat Transfer on a Flat Plate

8.4. Integral Equations for Momentum and Energy on a Flat Plate

8.4.1. Velocity and temperature profiles on a vertical flat plate

8.4.2. Solution of integral equation for vertical flat plate

8.4.3. Free convection heat transfer coefficient for a vertical flat plate

8.5. Transition and Turbulence in Free Convection

8.6.1. Vertical Plates and cylinders

8.6.2. Horizontal cylinders

8.6.3. Horizontal Cylinders

8.6.4. Inclined plates

8.6.5. Spheres

8.6.6. Enclosed spaces

8.6.7. Concentric cylinder space

8.6.8. Concentric spheres space

8.8. Combined Free and Forced Convection

8.8.1. External flows

8.8.2. Internal flows

9) BOILING AND CONDENSATION

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Boiling Heat Transfer

9.2.1. General aspects

9.2.2. Boiling regimes

9.2.3. Bubble shape and size consideration

9.2.4. Bubble growth and collapse

9.2.5. Critical Diameter of bubble

9.2.6. Factors affecting nucleate boiling

9.2.7. Boiling correlations

9.2.7.1. Nucleate pool boiling

9.2.7.2. Critical heat flux for nucleate pool boiling

9.2.7.3. Film pool boiling

9.3. Condensation Heat Transfer

9.3.1. General aspects

9.3.2. Laminar film condensation on a vertical plate

9.3.3. Turbulent film condensation

9.3.4. Film condensation on horizontal tubes

9.3.5. Film condensation inside horizontal tubes

9.3.6. Influence of the presence of non-considerable gases

10) HEAT EXCHANGES

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Types of heat Exchanges

10.3. Heat Exchangers Analysis

10.4. Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

10.4.1. Logarithmic Mean temperature difference for parallel-flow

10.4.2. Logarithmic Mean temperature difference

For counter-flow

10.5. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

10.6. Correction Factors for Multi-pass Arrangements

10.7. Heat Exchangers Effectiveness and Numbers of Transfer Units (NTU)

10.8. Pressure Drop and Pumping Power

10.9. Evaporators

PART III : HEAT TRANSFER BY “RADIATION”

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Surface Emission Properties

11.3. Abortively, Reflectively, and Transmissivily

11.4. Concepts of a Black body

11.5. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law

11.6. Kirchhoff’s Law

11.7. Planck’s Law

11.8. Wien Displacement Law

11.9. Intensity of Radiation and Lamberts Cosine Law

11.9.2. Lamberts cousin law

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Radiation Exchange between Black Bodies Separated by an a Non-absorbing Medium

12.3. Shape Factor Algebra and Salient Features of the Shape Factors

12.4. Heat Exchange between Non-Black Bodies

12.4.1. Infinite parallel planes

12.4.2. Infinite long concentric cylinders

12.4.3. Small gray bodies

12.4.4. Small body in a large enclosure

12.5. Electric Network Analogy for Thermal Radiation System

12.6. Radiation Heat Exchange for Three Gray Surfaces

12.7. Radiation Heat Exchange for Two Black Surfaces Connected by a Single Refractory Surface

12.8 Radiation Heat Exchange for Two Gray

Surfaces Connected by a Single Refractory Surface

12.9. Radiation Heat Exchange for Four Black Surfaces

12.10. Radiation Heat Exchange for Four Gray

Surfaces

12.13. Error in Temperature Measurement due to Radiation

12.14 Radiation from Gases, Vapors’ and Flames

PART IV: MASS TRANSFER

13) MASS TRANSFER

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Models of Mass Transfer

13.3. Concentration, Velocities and Fluxes

13.3.1. Concentrations

13.3.2. Velocities

13.3.3. Fluxes

13.4. Flicks Laws

13.5. General Mass Diffusion Equation in Stationary Media

13.6. Steady-State Diffusion in common Geometries

13.6.1. Steady state diffusion through a plane membrane

13.6.2. Steady state diffusion through a cylindrical shell

13.6.3. Steady state diffusion through a spherical shell

13.8. Steady-State Unidirectional Diffusion (state diffusion through a stagnant gas film

13.9. Steady –state Diffusion in Liquid

13.10. Transient Mss Diffusion in Semi-finite Stationary Medium

13.11. Mass Transfer Co-efficient

13.12. Convective Mass Transfer

13.13. Correlations for Connective Mass Transfer

13.14. Reynolds and Colburn Analogies for Mass Transfer –Combined Heat and Mass Transfer

14)UNIVERSITIES QUESTIONS