## Syllabus For The Subject Engineering Metrology and Instrumentation

### ENGINEERING METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION

1) THE PLACE OF MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION, AND LABORATORY

1.1 Introduction

1.2. Significance of Measurement and Instrumentation

1.3. Measuring System

A. The Transducer and Its Environmental

An Overview

B. The Nature of Measurement

A Design Problem

C. Functional Stages of Measurement System

D. The Sensing Process

E. Examples of Typical Sensors

1.4. The Measurement Problem

A. Valid Measurements

B. Measuring System

1.5. The Instrumentation Problem

1.6. The Laboratory Problem

A. Experimentation

B. Goals and Implementation

C. Laboratory Experience

1.7. Reports

1.8. Nomenclature

1.9. Units and Standard

2) TRANSDUCERS

2.1. Physical Laws

A. First order Effects: Signal/Noise Ratio

B. Second-Order and Irreversible Effects

2.2. Static Characteristics

A. Obtaining a Static Characteristic Curve

B. Linear Characteristics

C. Common Nonlinearities

D. Effects of Nonlinearities

E. Linearization

2.3. Transducer Types and Modeling

A. Information Models

B. Energy Models

C. Incremental Models

2.4. Calibration

2.5. Errors in Measurement

A. Accuracy, Precision, Uncertainty, Mistakes

B. Systematic and Random Errors

C. Engineering Data

2.6. Uncertainty Analysis

A. Overall Uncertainty

B. Estimation for Design

C. Selection of Alternative Test Methods

3) STRUCTURE OF MEASURING SYSTEM

3.1. Methods of Measurement

A. Null-Balanced Method

B. Unbalanced Method

C. Differential Method

D. Inferential Between Components

3.2. Comparison of Methods of Measurement

3.3. Interaction between Components

A. Concept of Impedance

B. One-Port Devices

C. Two-port Devices

D. Three-Port Devices: Amplifiers

3.4. Bridge Circuits

A. Null-Balanced System

B. Unbalance and Differential System

3.5. Basic Transducer Circuit

A. Ideal Power Sources

B. Non ideal Power Sources

3.6. System with Feedback

A. System Description

B. Effects on Characteristics of Components

C. Effects on System Performance

3.7. Methods of Noise Reduction

A. Noise Reduction at the Interface

B. Noise Reduction by Insensitivity

3.8. Noise Documentation

4) DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTRUMENTATION

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Modeling

4.3. Time Response of Instruments

A. Test Signals

B. Zero-Order Instruments

C. First-Order Instruments

D. Second-Order Instruments

4.4. Analog Data: Errors and Correction

B. Dynamic Errors

C. Corrections for Analog Data

4.5. Limitations of Time-Domain Analysis

4.6. Frequency Response of Instruments

A. Elementary Transfer Functions

B. Bode Plots of General Transfer Functions

C. Dynamic Compensation

4.7. Response to Periodic Signals

A. Fourier Spectrum

B. Response to Periodic Signals

4.8. Response to Transient Signals

A. Frequency Contents of Transients

B. Response to Transient Signals

C. Transient Test Signals

5) NONSELF-GENERATING TRANSDUCER AND APPLICATION

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Differential Transformers

5.3. Differential Transformers: Applications

5.4. Carrier System

A. Amplitude Modulation: Sine-Wave Carrier

B. Types of Carriers

5.5. Inductive Transducer

5.6. Inductive Transducers: Application

5.7. Strain Gases

A. Biaxial Stresses

B. Gases Selection

C. Strain Gage Circuits

5.8. Strain Gages: Application

5.9. Capacitive Transducers

5.10. Capacitive Transducers: Application

6) SIGNAL CONDITIONING AND OUTPUT DEVICES

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Operational Amplifiers: Characteristics

6.3. Operational Amplifiers: Basic Circuit

6.4. Op-Amp Amplifiers and Applications

A. Amplifiers

B. Applications

6.5. Binary Numbering System

6.6. Digital Techniques

A. Logic Gates

B. Boolean Algebra

C. Flip-Flops

6.7. Functional Logic Circuits

A. Encoders- Decoders

B. Multiplexers- De multiplexers

C. Sample-and-Hold

D. Counters

E. Analog/ Digital Converters

6.8. Output Devices

A. Cathode- Ray Oscilloscopes

B. Digital Electronic Counters

C. Magnetic Tape and Disk Recorders

D. Strips-Chart Recorders and X-Y Plotters’

E. Stroboscopes

6.9. Output/Storage Devices

A. Digital Storage Oscilloscopes

B. Digital Signal Analyzers

C. Fast Fourier Transform

D. Sampling

E. Data Acquisition Systems

7) DISPLACEMENT, MOTION, FORCE, TORQUE, AND PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Dimension and Displacement Measurements

A. Gage Blocks: The Working Standards

B. Examples: Mechanical Methods

C. Examples: Others Methods

7.3. Motion Measurements

7.4. Velocity Measurements

7.5. Acceleration Measurements

A. Seismic Instruments

B. Accelerometers

C. Equivalent Circuits

D. Environmental Effects

E. Calibration

7.6. Force Measurements

A. Dynamic Force Measurements

B. Transient Calibration of Force Transducers and Accelerometers

7.6. Force Measurements

A. Dynamic Force Measurement

B. Transient Calibration of Force Transducers and Acceleration

7.7. Torque Measurements

7.8. Pressure Measurements

A. Sensing Elements

B. Applications

C. Installations

D. Calibrations

8) FLUID-FLOW MEASUREMENTS

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Laminar and Turbulent Flow

8.3. “Direct” Flow Measurement

A. Weighing and Volumetric Methods

B. Positive-Displacement Meters

C. Flow Visualization

D. “Carrier” System

8.4. “Indirect” Flow Measurement

8.5. Square-Roots-Law Flow meters

A. Orifice and Ventura Flow meters

B. Characteristics of Square-Root-Law Flow meters

C. Pilot-Static Tubes

D. Variable-Area Flow Meters

E. Drag-Force Flow meter

8.6. Turbine Flow meters

8.7. Vortex-Shedding Flow meters

8.8. Hot-Wire and Hot- Film Anemometer

A. Constant-Temperature Anemometer

B. Constant-Current Anemometer

8.9. Mass Flow meters

A. Density Measurement

B. Direct Mass Flow meters

9) TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

9.1. Introduction

9.2. International Practical Temperature Scale

9.3. Expansion and Filled Thermometers

9.4. Thermocouples

A. Thermoelectric Effects

B. Thermoelectric Laws

C. Gradient Approach to Thermocouple Circuitry

D. Reference Junctions

E. Thermocouple Probes

F. Practical Thermocouple Measurement

9.5. Resistance Temperature Detectors

A. Material and Constructors

B. Characteristics and Standards

C. Circuits

D. Sources of Errors

9.6. Thermostats

9.7. Pyrometers: Principles

A. Physical Laws

B. Remittance

C. Measurement Uncertainty

9.8. Promoters

A. Brightness Pyrometers

B. Wideband and Selected-Band Pyrometer

C. Components

9.9. Miscellaneous Temperature Sensors

10) LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Experiment 1. Voltage Measurements:

Oscilloscopes, Millimeters, and Digital

Millimeters

E1.1. Objectives

E1.2. Introduction

E1.3. Description of Equipments

E1.4. Voltage Measurements: Experiment1-1

E1.5. Input/output Imepedances: Experiment1-2

E1.7. AC/DC Input Coupling: Experiment1-4

E1.8. Measurement of C in the AC Couple: Experiment1-5

E1.9.Trigger System of Oscilloscopes: Experiment1-6

E1.10. Probe Compensation: Experiment1-7

E1.11. Miscellaneous Controls: Experiment1-8

10.3. Experiment 2.Transducer and Physical Laws

E2.1. Introduction

E2.2. Equipment

E2.3. Resistive Transducer

E2.4. Capacitive Transducer

E2.5. Inductive Transducer

E2.6. Other Common Transducer

10.4. Experiment 3. Measuring Systems

E3.1. Introduction

E3.2. Acoustic Pressure Detection

E3.3. Vibration of a Simple Beam

10.5. Experiment 4. Strain Gage Application

E4.1. Objective

E4.2. Introduction

E4.3. Stress-Strain Relations: A Review

E4.4. Strain Gages and Gage Circuit

E4.5. Flexures and Cross-Sensitivity

E4.6. Equipments

E4.7. Laboratory Experience

E4.8. Pressure Transducer Calibration: Experiment4-1

E4.9. Direct and Indirect Calibrations: Experiment4-2

E4.10. Simply Supported Beam: Experiment4-3

E4.11. Tensile Test: Experiment4-4

E4.12. Compression Test: Experiment4-5

E4.13. Cross-Sensitivity: Experiment4-6

E4.14. Torsion and Bending: Experiment4-7

E4.15. Long Thin-Walled Cylindrical: Experiment4-8

E4.16. Biaxial Strain Measurements: Experiment4-9

10.6. Experiment 5. Time Response of Instruments

E5.1. Introduction

E5.2.The Models

E5.3. Demonstration of Zero-Order Instrumentation

E5.4. Demonstration of First-Order

Instrumentation

E5.5. First-Order Instrumentation

E5.6. Demonstration of Second-Order

Instrumentation

E5.7. Second-Order System: Experiment 5-3

10.7. Experiment 6. Frequency Response of Instrumentation

E6.1. Frequency Response Method

E6.2. Demonstration of Zero-Order

Instrumentation

E6.3. First-Order Instruments

E6.4. Second-Order Instruments

10.8. Experiments 7.Signal Conditioning

E7.1. Introduction

E7.2.Demonstration of Thermocouple Compensation

E7.3. Demonstration of Carrier Systems

E7.4. Demonstration of Amplitude Modulation and Demolition

E7.5. Characteristics of Filters

E7.6. Operational Amplifiers