**HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES**

**Contents **

**1 Hydrological cycle and precipitation **

Process

Introduction

Hydrological cycle

Run off process

Conceptual model of hydrological cycle

Hydrological cycle in India

World inventory of water resources

Elements of meteorology

Solar radiation

Temperature

Humidity

Wind

Atmospheric circulation

Precipitation- its forms and types

Snow-pack and snow-melt

Response of a catchment

Hydrological data

Most frequently needed data

Essential requirements of a data

Synthetic generation of hydrological data

Indian data sources

Questions and problems

**2 Statistics applied to hydrology **

Introduction

Time series

Graphical curve fitting

Trend

Double mass curve

Methods for analysis of time series

Processing of hydrological data

Rejection of data-outlier points

Basic concepts related to probability curves

Theoretical frequency distribution

Probability

Ungrouped data and plotting univariate distribution

Types of probability functions

Recurrence interval

Theoretical models of probability

Models of discrete random variables

Models of continuous random variables

Length of record

Selection of a design event

Determination of permissible risk

Summary

Questions and problems

**3 Precipitation **

Introduction

Measurement of point precipitation

Types of rain gauges

Radar measurement of precipitation

Satellite measurement of rainfall

Errors in precipitation measurements

Precipitation data

Precipitation gauge network

Estimating missing precipitation

Consistency of records

Wet and dry cycles

Precipitation analysis and its presentation

Depth-time graph

Distribution graph

Mass curve and intensity duration curves

Dimensionless mass curve

Intensity-duration-frequency analysis of point rain-fall

Theoretical probability distribution curves

Station year method

Mean precipitation over a basin

Depth-area curves

Depth-area-duration curves

Probable maximum precipitation

Methods to compute PMP

World’s greatest rainfalls

Precipitation characteristics in INDIA

Seasons

Annual rainfall over India

Questions and problems

**4 Water abstractions **

Introduction

Evaporation from

Water surfaces

Energy budget method

Combination method

Control of reservoir evaporation

Transpiration

Soil evaporation

Evaportanspiration

Empirical formulae to determine PET

Interception losses

Depression storage

Watershed leakage

Infiltration

Factors affecting infiltration capacity

Methods of measuring infiltration capacity

Infiltrometer method

Hydrograph analysis

Mathematical expressions for infiltration process

Infiltration indices

Questions and problems

**5 Run off and stream flow measurements **

Introduction

Factors affecting run off

Climatic factors

Stream flow measurements

Location of a gauging station

Instruments for measuring stage

Discharge measurements

Use of artificial or natural control structures

Measurement of total volumes

Slope-area method

Velocity-area method

Dilation methods of stream flow measurements

Other methods

Stage discharge curve

Determination of stage-discharge curve

Extension of gauge-discharge curve for low discharge

Regions

Establishment of stage discharge curve in back water

Reach

Extension methods

Stream gauge network

Questions and problems

**6 Hydrographs **

Hydrograph analysis

Methods of separation

Arbitrary methods of flow separation

Flow separation by ground water depletion curves

Analysis of complex hydrographs

Recession curve of direct run off

Time base of hydrograph

Unit hydrograph

Assumptions

Construction of unit hydrograph

Limitation of unit hydrograph

Limitation of unit hydrograph

Summation curves

Determination of U.H.from a complex storm

Determination of unit hydrograph from complex

Storms by matrix method

Distribution graph

Synthetic unit hydrographs

Definitions

Dimensionless unit hydrograph

Formulae relating hydrographs to basin characteristics

Instantaneous unit hydrograph

Conceptual IUH

Relation between DUH and IUH

Nash’s conceptual model

Table of gamma function

Clark’s model of deriving IUH

Questions and problems

**7 Ground water **

Introduction

Vertical distribution of ground water

Aquifer and related definition terms

Other definitions

Darcy’s law

Dupit-forcheimmer assumptions

Illustrations

Steady flow to a well

Steady state discharge from an extensive confined

Aquifer

Steady state discharge from an unconfined aquifer

Transient flow to a well

Confined aquifer

Unconfined aquifer

Determination of formation constants

Questions and problems

**8 Reservoir capacity and operation **

Introduction

Classification of reservoirs

Site selection for reservoirs

Site investigations

General definitions

Determination of live storage capacity

Superimposition of hydrographs of stream inflow and demand

Mass curve method

Determination of reservoir yield

Reservoir sedimentation

Sediment transport by stream

Sediment deposit in the reservoir

Sediment inflow rate

Trap efficiency

Density of sediment deposit

Reservoir sedimentation surveys

Suspended load measurements

Sediment distribution in reservoir

Useful life of reservoirs

Reservoir sedimentation control

Reservoir operation

Single purpose conservation reservoirs

Single purpose flood control reservoirs

Multipurpose reservoirs

Questions and problems

**9 Floods and flood control **

Introduction

Floods in Indian river systems

Design flood

Flood estimated

Rational method

Empirical methods

Unit hydrograph method

Flood frequency studies

Flood frequency studies

Flood control measures

Classification

Levees and flood walls

Channel improvement

Floodways

Flood plain management

Flood forecasting

Flood forecasting

Flood forecasting

Flood routing through reservoirs

Pul’s method

Miscellaneous method for hydrologic routing

Questions and problems

**10 Water use in irrigation and power **

Importance of efficient water use for irrigation

Basic terms and explanations

Pertaining to soil and water

Pertaining to crop and water

Pertaining to irrigation on land

Application of irrigation water

Timing of irrigation

Estimation of consumptive use

Irrigation requirements of crops

Measurement of effective rainfall

Ground water contribution

Water losses in canals evaporation loss

Seepage loss

Water saving methods

Canal linings

Sprinkler irrigation

Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation

Conjunctive use of surface and ground waters

Importance of hydropower development

Basic power terms

Types of hydroelectric power plants

Run-off-river plants

Dam power plants

Diversion canal plants

Pumped storage plants

Hydropower calculations

Components of hydropower plants

Head race, intake conduct

Forebay

Surge tanks

Power house

Draft tube and tail race

Questions and problems

**11 Engineering economy in flood control projects**

Introduction

Approach to engineering economic study

Basic definitions

Discounting formulae

Compound amount formula

Present worth formula

Capital recovery formula

Series present worth formula

Discounting methods

Present worth method

Rate of return method

Annual cost method

Benefit cost method

Economics of flood control

Production function

Objective function

Optimality criteria

Principles of project optimality

Economic analysis of combined project

Estimating flood damages

Estimating flood control benefits

Questions and problems

**12 Water resources project planning **

Introduction

Investigations in project planning

Statement of objectives

Planning data requirement and collection

Projection for future

Project formulation

Project evaluation

Multipurpose project planning

Requirements of uses in multi-purpose projects

Compatibility of multi-purpose uses

Drawbacks in project planning

Systems approach in water resources planning

General definitions and concepts

Optimization techniques in water systems planning

Questions and problems

**13 DAMS **

Introduction

Classification

Classification of dams

Based on function

Based on hydraulic design

Based on materials of construction

Choice of type of dam

Selection of dam site

Site investigations

Reconnaissance survey

Preliminary investigations

Final investigations

Sub-surface investigations

Principle methods

Supplementary methods

Questions and problems

**14 Gravity dams **

Introduction

Forces acting on gravity dams

Self weight of dam

Hydrostatic pressure

Uplift pressure

Earthquake pressure

Ice pressure

Wave pressure

Silt pressure

Reaction of foundations

Principal and shear stresses

Stability criteria of gravity dams

Causes of failure

Stability requirement

Elementary profile of a gravity dam

Calculation of base width

Stresses developed in the elementary profile

Limiting height of dam

Practical profile of gravity dam

Analysis of gravity dam

Step-by-step method

Overflow gravity dams

Shape of crest

Construction of gravity dams

Galleries in dams

Questions and problems

**15 Arch and buttress dams **

Introduction

Classification of arch dams

Principles of arch dam design

Arch dam design methods

Cylindrical method

Limitations of the cylindrical method

Trial load method

Elastic analysis theory

Elastic shell theory

Finite element method

Buttress dams

Types of buttress dams

Flat slab or ambersen dam

Multiple arch dam

Miscellaneous types

Forces and stresses in buttress dams

Principles of design

Questions and problems

**16 Earth dams**

Introduction

Components of earth dams and their functions

Earth dam classification

Rolled fill dams

Hydraulic fill dams

Homogenous earth dam

Zoned earth dam

Diaphragm type of earth dam

Flow net analysis

Seepage theory

Significance of Laplace equation

Forchheirmer graphical analysis

Properties of flow net curves

Phreatic line in zoned earth dam

Pore pressure

Determination of phreatic line

Casagrande’s graphical method

Casagrande method for embankment

With inclined

Discharge face (without filter)

Analytical method for embankment with inclined discharge face (without filter)

Slope stability analysis

Slip circle method

Method of slices

Rectangular plot method

Stability of upstream slope rapid drawdown

Slope stability during rapid drawdown

Slope stability during construction

Failure of earth dams

Hydraulic failures

Seepage failures

Structural failures

Failure due to earthquakes

Design considerations in earth dams

Design criteria

Embankment design

Design considerations in seismic regions

Slope protection

Drainage system in earth dam

Drainage system for embankment

Filter design criteria

Horizontal drainage blankets and filters

Rock toe

Inclined drainage filter

Chimney drain

Drainage system for foundations

Impervious cut off

Upstream blanket

Drainage trench

Pressure relief wells

Construction of earth dam

Site preparation

Diversion and coffer damming

Foundation preparation

Grouting

Excavation

Fill placement

Soil compaction

Rock-fill dams

Impervious membrane rockfill dam

Earth-core type rockfill dam

Questions and problems

Appendices

Index

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