Fabric Manufacturing

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1 Textile fabrics: An overview

 2        A brief outline of various fabric formation systems

Weaving system

Knitting system

Braiding system

Netting and lacing systems

Nonwoven systems


3 Yarn winding


Package build

Unwinding behavior

Precision and random winding

Features of a modern surface-driven cone-winding machine


Yarn splicer

Ends-opposed pneumatic splicing

Ends-together pneumatic splicing

Principles of pneumatic splicing

Non-pneumatic splicers

Yarn cleaners

Yarn waxing

Drum winding

Drum drive

Effects of drum groove geometry

Package cradle

Peripheral features


4 Warping


Warping systems

Elements of warping systems


Leasing system

Expandable reed and length-measuring system

Drum for winding sections

Beaming systems

Further reading     


5 Yarn sizing


Importance of sizing

Sizing material

Desirable nature of bonds between adhesives and

Fiber material

Van der waals forces

Dipole-dipole interactions

Hydrogen bonds

Starch as a suitable material for sizing cotton

Boiling of starch

Acid treatment

Alkali treatment

Oxidation of starch

Typical behavior of starch as aqueous


Sizing of synthetic fibers

Hot melt adhesives

Sizing machine


Size box

Drying zone

Splitting zone

Beaming zone

Controls on a modern sizing machine

Stretch control

Tension control

Moisture control

Pressure control

Temperature control

Level control

Special sizing systems

Dye sizing

Single-end sizing

Hot melt sizing

Solvent sizing

Cold sizing

Feature of new sizing methods


Further reading


6. Basic weaves and the process of drawing in

Basic concepts

Identification to the basic weaves

Repeat and shift

Drafting and lifting

Methods of generating weaves

Transformation methods of fabric weave design

Process of drawing in


Further reading





7 Primary and secondary motions of a weaving loom

Basic machine elements

Principles of shedding

Shedding tappet

Shed geometry

Shed angle

Cyclic variation in yarn strain

Shed  envelope

Asymmetric shed

Staggered shed

Geometry of wrap line

Types of shed

Principles of shuttle picking


Kinematics of a picking system

Beating up


Mechanism of the beating-up process

Development of crimp and widthwise

Contraction of fabric

Stabilizing fabric width at the reed

Cloth fell displacement during beating up

Principles of take up

Principles of let off

Negative let-off motion

Positive let-off motion

Variation in warp tension


Further reading



8 Development in shedding motions

Limitations of shedding tappet

Functional principles of dobby

Principles of dobby

Principle of programming

Driving system

Limitations of dobby

Functional principles of jacquard

Selection system

Limitations of mechanical jacquard

New generation jacquards

New concepts of jacquard shedding

Next-generation shedding systems


Further reading


9 Developments in weft insertion systems

  Drawbacks of a conventional system

Basic principles of shuttles weft insertion systems

Partially guided solid carrier

Fully guided solid carrier

Basic concepts of fluid carrier

Guided fluid carrier

Completely unguided fluid carrier


Further readings




10 Features of modern shuttle less weaving systems

Machine drive and power consumption

Drive to sley

Fabric selvedge

Productivity and fabric quality

Application of electronics

Application of composite materials

QSC and automation in drawing in

Preparatory process

Modern cone winder

Modern warper

Modernization in sizing

Noise generation




11 Nonconventional weaving systems

Multiphase weaving

Ripple shed weaving

Wave shed weaving

Narrow fabric weaving




12 Formation of weft-knitted fabrics


Basic concepts

Process of loop formation

Basic weft knits

Plain or single jersey

Derivatives of single jersey

Instability and asymmetry of plain loop

Curling of fabrics edges

Spirality  of wale line

Stability of wale line

Stabilization of knitted structure

Rib knit

Purl knit

Interlock knit

Conventions for re presentation of weft-knitted stitches

Systems of the basic weft-knitting machines

Needles and beds


Knitting cams

Sequence of loop formation

Single bed

Loop formation on single flat bed

Loop formation on single circular bed

Double bed

Rib gating

Interlock gating

Purl gating

Guidelines on control of the knitting process

Relationship between machine gauge and yarn count

Control of loop length

Productivity of knitting machines

Relationship between geometry and properties of a loop

Importance of loop length and loop shape

Geometry of weft-knitted loop

Some useful expressions

Fabric areal density  

Fabric width

Fabric length

Tightness factor of fabric


Further readings



13 Formation of warp-knitted fabrics

Warp-knitting machines

Broad classification

Tricot machine

Basic warp knits

Convention for representation of stitches

Single bar knits

Pillar stitch

I and 1 tricot lap

2 1 stitch

1 and 1 or tricot lap

2 1 stitch

3 1 and 4 1 stitches

Atlas stitch

Multi-bar warp knit constructions

Sequence of loop formation

Compound needle on tricot machine

Latch needle on single-bed Raschel

Latch needle on double-bed raschel

 Special feature of machine and product

Special features of lapping diagrams and

Lapping plans

Shogging motion of guide bars

Pattern disk

Pattern chain

Electronic shogging

Single-bed knits


Inlaid structures

Weft-inserted structures

Loop or pile structure

Double-bed spacer and cut plush fabrics

Comparison of warp-knitting process vis-à-vis other

Yarn-to-fabric conversion processes

Further readings


14 Formation of braids


Geometry of tubular braids

Elements of tubular braids

 Elements of a tubular braiding machine

Differences between flat and tubular braid

Limitations of braiding



15 Formation of nonwoven fabrics



Fibers in nonwoven fabrics

Web formation from fibers

Dry method

Carding process

Laying of a carded web

Aerodynamic process

Wet method

Web formation from polymer chips

Web formation by spunlaid route

Web formation by meltblowing

Web formation by flashspinning and electrospining

Reinforcement of web

Mechanical method

Needle punching


Stitch bonding

Thermal bonding

Adhesive bonding

Physics and chemistry of adhesive binders

Method of application of binders to nonwovens


Further readings


16 Formation of triaxial and multiaxial 2-D and 3-D fabrics


Triaxial fabrics

Woven triaxial fabric

Warp guidance system

Beating up system

Beating triaxial fabric

Comparison of woven and braided triaxial fabrics

Multiaxial fabrics

Quartaxial weaving

Multiaxial warp knitting

Three-dimensional fabrics

Three-dimensional knitted products

Three-dimensional braided products

Three-demensional woven products

Formation of three-dimensional flat

Woven products

Formation of three-dimensional

Cylindricial woven products

Key technologcal concerns for 3-D fabric-formation



Further reading