Fabric Structure and Analysis

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Conversion tables


Section 1: loads and material properties of

Spatial structures

1 Loads on spatial structures

An introduction to loads

Dead loading

Imposed loading

Dynamic loads for dancing and jumping

Statistical data on loads on constructed facilities

Wind loading

Wind loading formation on spatial structures

Standards wind speeds

Internal pressure coefficient

Enclosed buildings

Additional loading criteria

Snow loading on spatial structures

Snow loads

Snow sliding down roofs

Earthquake or seismic loads on spatial structures

The world’s earthquake countries

The intensity scales

2 Material properties of spatial structures

Material properties of concrete

Characteristics of concrete

Characteristics of concrete

Characteristics strain and other properties of reinforcing bars

Comparative study of American, British and EC practices

Reinforcement, grades and strength

Welded wire fabric

Minimum reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature

Shear reinforcement

Anchorage of web reinforcement

Prestressing steel

British practice

American practice

Material properties of structural steels

British practice

American practice

Material properties of aluminum structures

British practice

American practice

Timber/wood material properties

British practice

American practice

European practice  

Material properties of aluminum structures

British practice

American practice

Timber/wood material properties

British practice

American practice

European practice

Mechanical properties of glass

Type of glass

Processed glasses

Material properties of plastics, fibres and fabrics


Fibres and fabrics

General properties of plastics and fabrics

References and bibliography


Section II: tall building frames, shear walls and lattice/ grid roof structures


3 Spatial building frames under seismic effects


Tall buildings under seismic effects

Nature, causes and effects of earthquakes

Dynamic effects of earthquakes on rigid-framed


Dynamic effects of earthquakes on rigid-framed


Dynamic effects of earthquakes on flexibly framed


Dynamic response of multi-degree-of freedom system

Codified methods for seismic design

Finite element analysis of a 55-storey building


4. Shear walls: analysis and design

Methods of analysis

Classical method

Coupled shear walls: dhillion’s method

Analysis: slope-deflection method

Pierced shear walls: magnus method

Analysis of walls with rigid foundations

Analysis of walls with non-rigid foundations

Summary of design procedure

Rigid foundations

Non-rigid foundations without wind action

Non-rigid foundations with wind action

Flexibility method

Generalized flexibility equations

Example on the flexibility method of frames

Analysis of interconnected shear walls

Stiffness method

Method of analysis

Mathematical model

Finite element method

A comparative study of results


5 Lattice stressed skin and space grid systems for roof structures

Classification of spatial structures

Single-layered grid system

Stressed skin system

Spatial network for tube/member structures

Difference equation system of spatial grids

Equilibrium equation of grids using a direct connecting system

Comparison of continuum and finite element methods

References and bibliography

Section III shell-shaped spatial structures


6 Shell –shaped spatial structures

Characteristics of shell-shaped structures


Shape and curvature

Boundary and edge conditions

Generalized analysis of thin shell surfaces

Assumptions made in the theory of elastic thin shells

Assumptions of the membrane theory for shells

The equations of equilibrium of the element of shell of


Shells of revolution: ax symmetric loading

Cylindrical shell surfaces

Types of cylindrical shell surfaces

Short and long cylindrical shell surfaces

Membrane solution of domical surfaces

Equations of equilibrium of the element of a shell of revolution

Computer program:   NAZAM listings

Conoidal  dome’s surfaces

Computer program: conoidal domes

Elliptical dome-shaped surfaces

Toro spherical shell surfaces

Computer program: analysis of thin shells

Hyperbolic paraboloid-shaped structures

Surface definition


Skewed hyperbolic paraboloid

Groined vault

Elliptical paraboloid  shells

Cooling tower and cable net tower shell shapes

Computer program: dynamic wind pressure on cooling


Cooling tower supporting structures

Catenary type space structures

Equation of the catenary 

Radius of curvature

Cycloidal shaped elements of spatial structures

Equation of cycloid: shape of the spatial strctures

Equation of cycloid: shape of the spatial structural


Radius of curvature

Surface area and volume of cycloid of revolution

Folded plates

Some common shapes


Basic assumptions

Method of analysis

Case study

Single plate under the action of transverse moment

Plate system under the action of line loads along the

Fold lines


Behavior of single plates and plates joined along fold

Lines under various systems of actions


References and bibliography

Section IV: cable suspended, glass and fabric, net

And tensegritic structures


7 .Tension structures

General introduction

Cable-suspended structures

Pneumatic structures

Historical review of pneumatic structures

Air-supported structures

Air-inflated structures

Tensegritic structures

Application of tensegritic nets

Analysis of tensegritic structures

Net and tent structures

Films, fabrics and coated fabrics


Development of stiffness matrix for plane frame members

Assembly of the stiffness matrix for a structure

Stiffness matrices for a straight uniform member in a space

Suspended trussed frames supporting the area roof

Calculations for a three-member network under load

Load and displacements in a pin-jointed supporting frame

Classification of connectors

The mero system

The triode tic system

Oktaplatte and okta-S systems

The nodus system

Finite element analysis of dynamic response of

Wrinkling fabric structures

Stress-strain in wrinkling

Dynamic finite element analysis of wrinkling fabrics


Fabric structure: a case study

Glazing materials and specifications in spatial structures

Safety of glazing

Characteristics of fractures

Glass in risk areas

Properties of PVB interlayer used in laminated glass

Properties of sifcon layer

Glass plies constitutive relations

Blast design for glazing

Blast loadings on glass

Explosives and bombs

Loading model

Finite element analysis of glass-covered spatial structures

Analysis of results

Glass under explosion

Failure of a laminated glass as a strain rate material

Subjected to impact and explosion


References and bibliography


Section V: Methods of analysis for supporting structures


8. Methods of analysis

Flexibility method of analysis

Generalized method of analysis using a flexibility method

Flexibility of parabolic arches pinned at supports

Parabolic arches supported at different levels

Arches with fixed ends

Supports at different levels

Temperature and shrinkage in fixed arches: supports at

Different levels

Stiffness or displacement method: beams in spatial structures

Step-by-step procedure

Spatial structures

Trusses: dtiffness method

Method of tension coefficients

Space frames

Pin-connected schwedler dome using tension coefficients

The schwedler dome

Extension of the tension coefficient to domes

General formulae for supporting frames

Finite element analysis of the supporting systems

References and bibliography