**FUNDAMENTALS OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER**

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**Contents**

**1 An overview of heat transfer **

Introduction

Heat transfer

Modes of heat transfer

Combined modes of heat transfer

Dimensions and units

Solved problems

Exercise problems

**2 Steady state conduction **

Conduction

The ceteral model for condition (one dimensional)

Conduction other shapes

One dimensional steady state heat conduction with variable heat

Critical thickness of insulation

Mean area concept

Parallel flow

Solved problems

Objective questions

Exercise problems

**3 Conduction with heat generation **

Introduction

Steady state one dimensional conduction in a slab with uniform heat

Generation

Steady state radial heat conduction in cylinder with uniform heat generation

Radial conduction in sphere with uniform heat generation

Conclusion

Solved problems

Objective questions

Exercise problems

**4 Heat transfer with extended surfaces (FINS) **

Introduction

Fin model

Temperature calculation

Heat flow calculation

Fin performance

Circumferential fins and plate fins of varying sections

Optimisation

Fin with radiation surroundings

Contact resistance

Numerical method

Solved problems

Objective questions

Exercise problems

**5 Two dimensional steady heat conduction **

Introduction

Solution to differential equation

Graphical method

Numerical method

Electrical analogy

In the finite difference formulation

Solved problems

Exercise problems

**6 Transient heat conduction **

Introduction

A wall exposed to the sun

Lumped parameter model

Semi infinite solid

Periodic heat conduction

Transient heat conduction in large slab of limited thickness,long cylinders

And spheres

Product solution

Numerical method

Graphical method

Solved problems

Objective questions

Exercise problems

**7 Convection **

Introduction

Mechanism of convection

The concept of velocity boundary layer

Thermal boundary layer

Laminar and turbulent flow

Forced and free convection

Methods used in convection studies

Energy equation

Integral method

Dimensional analysis

Analogical methods

Correction of experimental results

Solved problems

Objective questions

Exercise problems

**8 Convective heat transfer-practical correlations **

Flow over surfaces

Introduction

Flow over flat plates

Turbulent flow

Flow across cylinders

Flow across spheres

Flow over bluff bodies

Flow across bank of tubes

Solved problems

Exercise problems

**9 Forced convection **

Internal flow

Hydrodynamic boundary layer development

Thermal boundary layer

Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

Liquid metal flow

Flow through non-circular sections

The variation of temperature along the flow direction

Solved problems

Objective questions

Exercise problems

**10 Natural convection **

Introduction

Basic nature of flow under natural convection conditions

Methods of analysis

Integral method

Correlations from experimental results

A more recent set of correlations

Constant heat flux condition-vertical surfaces

Free convection from inclined surfaces

Horizontal cylinders

Other geometric

Simplified expressions for air

Free convection in enclosed spaces

Rotating cylinders, disks and spheres

Combined forced and free convection

Solved problems

Objective questions

Exercise problems

**11 Phase change processes-boiling, condensation **

Freezing and melting

Introduction

Boiling or evaporation

The correlations

Flow boiling

Condensation

Freezing and melting

Solved problems

Objectives questions

Exercise problems

**12 Heat exchangers **

Introduction

Over all heat transfer coefficient

Classification of heat exchangers

Mean temperature difference-log mean temperature differences

Regenerative type

Determination of area in other arrangements

Heat exchanger performance

Storage type heat exchangers

Compact heat exchangers

Solved problems

Objective questions

Exercise problems

**13 Thermal radiations**

Introduction

Black body

Intensity of radiation

Real surfaces

Radiation properties of gases-absorbing, transmitting and emitting medium

Heat exchange by radiation

Radiant heat exchange exchanges between black surfaces

Heat exchange by radiation between gray surfaces

Effect of radiation on measurement of temperature by a bare thermometer

Multisurface enclosure

Surface separated by an absorbing and transmitting medium

Solved problems

Objective questions

Exercise problems

**14 Mass transfers **

Introduction

Properties of mixture

Diffusion mass transfer

Fick’s law of diffusion

Equimolal counter diffusion

Stationary media with specified surface concentration

Diffusion of one component into a stationary component or

Unidirectional diffusion

Unsteady diffusion

Convective mass transfer

Similarity between heat and mass transfer

Solved problems

Exercise problems

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